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The brutal subjugation of America’s Indigenous cultures required an equally brutal erasure of indigenous epistemologies and their corresponding cosmologies. Because the success of the colonial project depended on the spiritual conquest of native peoples, however, what was erased was immediately replaced with something else. This replacement, although similar in structure, was radically different in content, namely: Western religion (Catholicism) and philosophy (Scholasticism), the latter conceived as an advanced method of dialectical reasoning and rigorous conceptual analysis, representing civilized rationality. As a result, philosophy replaced indigenous oral metaphysical traditions with a written tradition that privileged disembodied rationality and linear thinking over other kinds of knowing that could be described as embodied, holistic, and non-linear.1 Philosophy is thus a modern intervention into Latin American history, a fact that makes it difficult, and some would say anachronistic, to speak of an Aztec or Nahual philosophy.2 This philosophy’s role in the spiritual colonization and subjugation of Indigenous peoples, moreover, makes it problematic to speak here of an authentic and autonomous Latin American philosophy.
In this paper, we define a Cayley–Dickson process for k-coalgebras proving some results that describe the properties of the final coalgebra, knowing the properties of the initial one. Namely, after applying the Cayley–Dickson process for k-coalgebras to a coassociative coalgebra, we obtain a coalternative one. Moreover, the first coalgebra is cocommutative if and only if the final coalgebra is coassociative. Finally we extend these results to a more general approach of D-coalgebras, where D is a k-coalgebra, presenting a class of examples of coalternative (non-coassociative) coalgebras obtained from group D-coalgebras.
To determine the prevalence of low scores for two neuropsychological tests with five total scores that evaluate learning and memory functions.
N = 5402 healthy adults from 11 countries in Latin America and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico were administered the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT-R). Two-thirds of the participants were women, and the average age was 53.5 ± 20.0 years. Z-scores were calculated for ROCF Copy and Memory scores and HVLT-R Total Recall, Delayed Recall, and Recognition scores, adjusting for age, age2, sex, education, and interaction variables if significant for the given country. Each Z-score was converted to a percentile for each of the five subtest scores. Each participant was categorized based on his/her number of low scoring tests in specific percentile cutoff groups (25th, 16th, 10th, 5th, and 2nd).
Between 57.3% (El Salvador) and 64.6% (Bolivia) of the sample scored below the 25th percentile on at least one of the five scores. Between 27.1% (El Salvador) and 33.9% (Puerto Rico) scored below the 10th percentile on at least one of the five subtests. Between 5.9% (Chile, El Salvador, Peru) and 10.3% (Argentina) scored below the 2nd percentile on at least one of the five scores.
Results are consistent with other studies that found that low scores are common when multiple neuropsychological outcomes are evaluated in healthy individuals. Clinicians should consider the higher probability of low scores when evaluating learning and memory using various sets of scores to reduce false-positive diagnoses of cognitive deficits.
There is no information about the characteristics of early cleavage in the Patagonian blennie (Eleginops maclovinus), which can be used as a diagnostic tool for embryo quality. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to characterize the first blastomeres of E. maclovinus morphologically. Of a ‘pool’ of incubated eggs at 10.7 ± 0.5°C, 100 microphotographs of blastodiscs were extracted at different incubation periods from 0.25 to 5 h after fertilization and analyzed. Blastodiscs taken at 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0 h were characterized and classified into symmetric or asymmetric groups according to their morphology. The proportions of length (L) and width (W) of each blastomere were determined to establish its symmetry. Additionally, 20 microphotographs of blastodiscs of normal appearance were analyzed morphologically (control blastodisc: CB) and compared other blastodiscs (4.0 and 5.0 h). The results showed that before fertilization oocytes presented a somehow turgid aspect (maximum average diameter of 987 ± 41 µm) and after fertilization and hydration, their diameter increased to 1001.5 ± 11 µm (but not statistically significant) and presented a spherical shape. First cleavage ends after 3.5 h of development, forming two blastomeres 467 ± 45 μm length (L) and 328 ± 21 μm width (W) with a L/W ratio of 1.43 ± 0.19. The second cleavage ends after development at 4.5 h forming four blastomeres 238 ± 65 μm length and 227 ± 65 μm width with a ratio L/W of 1.06 ± 0.09. Five categories were identified during the blastomere characterization: 70% normal or symmetric; 8% with odd numbers of blastomeres; 6% unequal; 6% ‘pie shaped’ and 10% amorphous.
We describe and illustrate a new genus and species of sea anemone from the intertidal in the Gulf of California (Mexico). Tenactis gen. nov. is characterized by mesenteries decamerously arranged, a single pair of directives attached to a single and strong siphonoglyph, small conchula, endodermal marginal sphincter muscle, pedal disc with basilar muscles, cinclides in pedal disc and proximal column, column with verrucae and pseudoacrorhagi, and a cnidom with p-mastigophores A2 and p-mastigophores B1 and B2a. Tenactis riosmenai gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by having a column not divisible into regions with longitudinal rows of verrucae distally and pseudoacrorhagi forming spherical structures at the tip, only 10 pairs of perfect mesenteries, diffuse endodermal marginal sphincter muscle and p-mastigophores A2 and p-mastigophores B1 and B2a in the filaments. Because of the decamerous arrangement of the mesenteries Tenactis gen. nov. most closely resembles some members of Actiniidae, Haloclavidae, Minyadidae, Oractiidae and Limnactinidae (Actinioidea), Halcampidae (Metridioidea) and Halcuriidae (Actinernoidea). However, the combination of having a decamerous arrangement of mesenteries, single siphonoglyph, conchula and cinclides indicate this new genus belongs to Haloclavidae. Additionally, the presence of a diffuse endodermal marginal sphincter muscle, basilar muscles, a single pair of directives, column with longitudinal rows of verrucae distally and pseudoacrorhagi, p-mastigophores A2, and p-mastigophores B1 and B2a in the filaments distinguish Tenactis riosmenai gen. et sp. nov. within Haloclavidae. This is the first record of the family Haloclavidae for the Gulf of California.
The Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS) is widely validated and used as a screening tool for bipolar disorder. However, there is no BSDS validated version for its use in Mexican population. The aim of the present study was to examine the BSDS diagnostic capacity, and to evaluate its criterion validity and internal consistency for its use in Mexican psychiatric patients. We recruited 200 patients who attended the psychiatric outpatient service of a Mental Health Specialized Hospital and were screened for bipolar disorder using BSDS. To determine the cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity, we used the SCID–I diagnosis as the gold standard in 100 participants with bipolar disorder and 100 with major depression. Internal consistency according to Cronbach’s coefficient alpha was .81. The area under ROC curve for the overall discriminability of BSDS against the criterion of SCID–I for bipolar disorder was .90. Finally, a cut-off value of 12 reached the most stable sensitivity and specificity, with predictive powers higher than .80. In conclusion, the properties of the scale including internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity, make of BSDS a valuable instrument for screening bipolar disorder in Mexican psychiatric population.
This paper is focused on explaining the radiation test in temperature performed on the Engineering and Qualification Model of the Medium Gain Antenna Radiofrequency (MGA-RFA) Assembly of ESA's BepiColombo mission. The goal of this program is to observe and study Mercury and its surroundings in a very demanding environment in terms of temperature and radiation. The MGA is an X-band two-axis steerable horn, which provides bidirectional communications between spacecraft and Earth as backup of the High Gain Antenna and also operates as primary communication link at several mission stages or conditions. The paper presents the measurement set-up for the qualification campaign of the antenna, where it was necessary to characterize the antenna in a representative thermal environment, and the results obtained from this test. Results of test up to 150°C show how gain and radiation pattern shapes are slightly affected by thermal stress, but without jeopardizing mission requirements. In addition, by analyzing correlation of this test with RF analysis in the same thermal conditions, it becomes possible to accurately extrapolate the MGA-RFA behavior up to temperatures of more than 500°C. This fact allowed the successful space qualification of this model.
A high incidence of burnout has been reported in health professionals working in palliative care units. Our present study aims to determine whether there are differences in the secretion of salivary cortisol between palliative care unit health professionals with and without burnout, and to elucidate whether there is a relationship between burnout syndrome and perceived stress and psychopathological status in this population.
A total of 69 health professionals who met the inclusion criteria participated in our study, including physicians, nurses, and nursing assistants. Some 58 were women (M = 29.65 years, SD = 8.64) and 11 men (M = 35.67 years, SD = 11.90). The level of daily cortisol was registered in six measurements taken over the course of a workday. Burnout syndrome was evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory–Human Services Survey (MBI–HSS), the level of perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale, and psychopathological status was gauged using the SCL–90–R Symptoms Inventory.
There were statistically significant differences in secretion of cortisol in professionals with high scores on a single subscale of the MBI–HSS [F(3.5) = 2.48, p < 0.03]. This effect was observed 15–30 minutes after waking up (p < 0.01) and at bedtime (p < 0.06). Moreover, the professionals with burnout showed higher scores on the psychopathology and stress subscales than professionals without it.
Significance of results:
A higher score in any dimension of the burnout syndrome in palliative care unit health professionals seems to be related to several physiological and psychological parameters. These findings may be relevant for further development of our understanding of the relationship between levels of burnout and cortisol secretion in the health workers in these units.
The Archive is the main Gaia data distribution hub. The contents of DR1 are briefly reviewed and the data structures discussed. The system architecture, based on Virtual Observatory standards, is also presented, together with the extensions that allow e.g. authenticated access, persistent uploads and table sharing. Finally some usage examples are provided.
In this paper, the design of a new compact uniplanar coplanar waveguide-fed antenna for multiband wireless application is presented and investigated. This antenna has a compact size of 25 × 25 mm2 and consists of a three parallel stub optimized added on rectangular slot to the radiator patch and T-shaped which inverted in the ground plane. The final prototype antenna designing resonantes at frequency bands (2.4–2.9 GHz), (3.7–5.2 GHz), and (5.7–6 GHz) with a return loss less than −10 dB. Details of the antenna configuration, design, simulation, and experimental results are presented, investigated, and discussed. The compactness, simple feeding technique, and conception of the uniplanar design make it easy to be integrated within devices of multiples wireless applications.
Since work organizations became the subject of scientific research, how to operationalize and measure dimensions of work design has been an issue, mainly due to concerns about internal consistency and factor structure. In response, Morgeson and Humphrey (2006) built the Work Design Questionnaire –WDQ–, an instrument that identifies and measures these dimensions in different work and organizational contexts. This paper presents the instruent’s adaptation into Spanish using reliability and validity analysis and drawing on a sample of 1035 Spanish workers who hold various jobs in an array of occupational categories. The total instrument’s internal consistency was Cronbach’s alpha of .92 and the various scales’ reliability ranged from .70 to .96, except for three dimensions. There was initially a difference in the comparative fit of the two versions’ factor structures, but the model with 21 work characteristics (motivational -task and knowledge-, social, and work context) showed the highest goodness of fit of the various models tested, confirming previous results from the U.S. version as well as adaptations into other languages and contexts. CFA results indicated goodness of fit of factor configurations corresponding to each of the four major categories of work characteristics, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as SRMR and RMSEA below .08. Thus it brings to the table a reliable, valid measure of work design with clear potential applications in research as well as professional practice, applications that could improve working conditions, boost productivity, and generate more personal and professional development opportunities for workers.
MIT economist Lester Thurow observes, “A competitive world offers two possibilities. You can lose. Or, if you want to win, you can change.” With increasing globalisation come increased pressures for both change and competitiveness. Understanding this changing environment is a manager's first challenge. The second is building mutually beneficial interpersonal and multicultural relationships with people in different parts of the world in order to overcome these challenges and take advantage of the opportunities presented by the turbulent global environment. Meanwhile, concerns about ethical behaviour and social responsibility surround managerial actions. We suggest here in this introductory chapter that an important key to succeeding in the global business environment is developing sufficient multicultural competence to work and manage productively across cultures.
During a dinner meeting in Prague between Japanese marketing representative Hiroko Numata and her Czech host, Irena Novák, confusion quickly emerged when the Japanese guest went off to find the restroom. She began to open the door to the men's room when her host stopped her. “Don't you see the sign?” Novák asked. “Of course I do,” Numata responded, “but it is red. In our country, a red-colored sign means it's the ladies’ room. For men, it should be blue or black.” Novák returned to her table, remembering that she too had looked at the sign but had focused on what was written, not its color. She wondered how many other things she and her Japanese colleague had seen or discussed but interpreted very differently.
We live in a contradictory and turbulent world, in which there are few certainties and change is constant. Over time, we increasingly come to realise that much of what we think we see around us can, in reality, be something entirely different. We require greater perceptual insight just as the horizons become more and more cloudy. Business cycles are becoming more dynamic and unpredictable, and companies, institutions, and employees come and go with increasing regularity. Much of this uncertainty is the result of economic forces that are beyond the control of individuals and major corporations. Much results from recent waves of technological change that resist pressures for stability or predictability.
Sam Mitchell looked through the window and realised that she had to make a decision in five days on whether to accept an international assignment to Hong Kong. She had just finished a meeting with her boss, who proposed to transfer Sam to the subsidiary there. Her boss said that she would be able to climb the corporate ladder and become the regional vice president if she was successful in Hong Kong. At this moment, Sam was trying to assess how her job was going, the situation her family would face if she took the offer, and what her career could look like after completing the assignment. Of course, she also recalled her first international move, to Philadelphia.
Born in Sydney, Sam went into the IT industry after earning an IT bachelor degree. She started with a small internet services company and, three years later, she began to work with her current employer, a large American technology company with offices around the globe. Sam's career was flourishing – so much so that, within 12 months of commencing, she was promoted into an international program manager role and offered the opportunity to move to headquarters in Philadelphia. She accepted immediately and without hesitation. Although the US job was on local terms – no “expat package” – the company was willing to pay relocation expenses, a rent-free townhouse, and US salaries were much higher than those in Australia.
Sam sought out an expatriate community after arriving in “Philly”. At a weekend expat get-together Sam met her future husband, Chris, who worked in a global technology company and had moved from Melbourne to Philly at a similar time to Sam. They got married quite soon after they met and bought a house on the “main line” in leafy, middle-class Montgomery County, about a 30-minute drive from downtown Philly. To better adapt into the local community they joined the Philadelphia Country Club, where Sam made many American friends and became active in golf. They figured out that, though there were some differences between Australia and the United States in terms of living style and mentality, the cultures of the two nations shared many similarities.
International business today is characterised by global organisations seeking new markets and opportunities across national boundaries, setting up subsidiaries, and managing people, processes, and resources in foreign countries. Employees of such companies increasingly take on expatriate/inpatriate assignments in foreign climes, jetset around the world on business assignments as frequent flyers, or simply play host to foreign managers and business partners in parent companies. Another important phenomenon is the growing multicultural workforce within organisations, as employees from different cultural backgrounds migrate to foreign countries and seek employment there. In all these instances, employees inevitably come into contact with people with cultural values, customs, and practices foreign to their own way of life. In such environments one skill that comes in most handy is “cultural intelligence”.
Cultural intelligence refers to “a set of skills and traits that allow one to more effectively interact with novel cultural settings”. Cultural intelligence enables a person to “adapt effectively to new cultural contexts”. Given the increasing trend in the globalisation of business activities and interaction with a multitude of cultural groups, employees need cross-cultural training that develops their capacities and skills in “cultural knowledge, self-awareness and behavioural aspects”. This case study examines the cross-cultural training strategy of International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), a company that has penetrated national boundaries and established itself as a truly international company.
IBM: the international company
IBM is a well-liked household name that represents state-of-the-art computers and technology. Established in the early part of the 20th century in the United States, the company started as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company, producing commercial scales, time clocks, and a primitive assortment of punch card tabulators. However, it was in the 1950s under the judicious guidance of Thomas J. Watson Jr that the company moved on to its present business operations – that is, development and commercialisation of electronic computer technologies. Since then the company has progressed into a formidable global presence, spanning nine time zones in more than 170 countries and employing 412,000 employees worldwide. IBM was ranked at number 71 in Fortune's Global 500 list and at number 24 in its World's Most Admired Company list in 2014. Today the company specialises in technology and innovation, inventing and providing software and hardware, engaging in business consultation and the provision of technology services that enable people and organisations to solve complex problems.
According to global entrepreneur Elon Musk, founder of PayPal, Tesla Motors, and SpaceX, “Starting and growing a business is as much about the innovation, drive, and determination of the people who do it as it is about the product they sell.” It has been said that managing and motivating others – taking responsibility for their work and welfare – is one of the most stressful jobs in the world. It is something like being a parent to other adults. In a very real sense, this is the supreme test of managerial effectiveness. If a manager can't supervise others successfully, his or her value to the organisation as a whole diminishes significantly. Here is the problem, though. If managing and motivating employees is problematic in one culture, imagine the challenge when trying to supervise employees across cultures: different customs, different languages, and different expectations. How are managers expected to succeed here? In this chapter we explore this challenge. We examine the role of work values in employee behaviour, as well as the psychological contracts that exist but are often unseen – particularly by new managers on the ground. We further examine how rewards or incentives that are effective in one culture may fail in another. Throughout, the focus is on how managers can learn to improve their people skills in unique or different environments.
Advice about motivating employees in the global workplace is readily available. In Thailand, for example, we are told that the use of individual merit bonus plans runs counter to societal norms about group cooperation and can actually lead to a decline rather than an increase in productivity from employees who refuse to openly compete with each other. In the Netherlands, you can't get the Dutch to compete with one another publicly. In Mexico, everything is a personal matter; but a lot of foreign managers don't get it. To get anything done, the manager has to be more of an instructor, teacher, or parental figure than a boss.
We are further told that to improve managerial performance in the United Kingdom managers should focus more on job content than on job context. British and Canadian companies also motivate their employees primarily through financial incentives, while German and Dutch companies focus on providing employment stability and employee benefits.