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Why is the fight against financial crimes such a central task for the EU?
The EU has a strong interest to counter financial crimes and fraud against
the EU budget as those crimes—so the EU legislator's claim is—hamper the
trust in the market and undermine consumer confidence to engage in internal
market transactions. In this Article, we aim to discuss the establishment of
the European Public Prosecutor Office as a federal agent and the effects of
this agent for establishing a robust EU financial crimes regime. Comparisons
with the US system of US Attorneys—federal prosecutors—will be drawn to show
that this institution has been quite effective at enhancing the protection
of US financial market. The Article will then discuss to what extent the EU
can, and should, learn from the American experience. We are particularly
interested in the strong security focus in the EU and its consequences when
it ventures into the area of financial crimes.
This paper addresses the feasibility of cross-lingual parsing with Universal Dependencies (UD) between Romance languages, analyzing its performance when compared to the use of manually annotated resources of the target languages. Several experiments take into account factors such as the lexical distance between the source and target varieties, the impact of delexicalization, the combination of different source treebanks or the adaptation of resources to the target language, among others. The results of these evaluations show that the direct application of a parser from one Romance language to another reaches similar labeled attachment score (LAS) values to those obtained with a manual annotation of about 3,000 tokens in the target language, and unlabeled attachment score (UAS) results equivalent to the use of around 7,000 tokens, depending on the case. These numbers can noticeably increase by performing a focused selection of the source treebanks. Furthermore, the removal of the words in the training corpus (delexicalization) is not useful in most cases of cross-lingual parsing of Romance languages. The lessons learned with the performed experiments were used to build a new UD treebank for Galician, with 1,000 sentences manually corrected after an automatic cross-lingual annotation. Several evaluations in this new resource show that a cross-lingual parser built with the best combination and adaptation of the source treebanks performs better (77 percent LAS and 82 percent UAS) than using more than 16,000 (for LAS results) and more than 20,000 (UAS) manually labeled tokens of Galician.
The polychaete Gallardoneris iberica was described in soft-bottom benthic habitats from the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula coasts in 2012. Since then, successive studies have found this species in Spain, Italy and Croatia. The present study is the first to report G. iberica for Greece and Cyprus (42 new records) confirming its wide geographic distribution on southern European coasts. Taxonomic accounts and ecological preferences based on a large survey and review of available literature are being presented. The species was frequently found in habitats characterized by infralittoral muddy sands with variable organic matter and ‘Moderate’ ecological quality status; nevertheless it was also recorded in coarser and finer sediments, circalittoral mixed sediments, phytal substrates and undisturbed sites. Its relative abundance per sample was always lower than 2%. A review of the available ecological and geographic data of the other Gallardoneris species and a worldwide taxonomic key to Gallardoneris species are provided.
The formation of massive stars remains one of the most intriguing questions in astrophysics today. The main limitations result from the difficulty to obtain direct observational constraints on the formation process itself. In this context, the Carina High-contrast Imaging Project of massive Stars (CHIPS) aims to observe all 80+ O stars in the Carina nebula using the new VLT 2nd-generation extreme-AO instrument SPHERE. This instrument offers unprecedented imaging contrast allowing us to detect the faintest companions around massive stars. These novel observational constraints will help to discriminate between the different formation scenarios by comparing their predictions for companion statistics and properties.
Correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of behavioral measures from two experimental tasks (Delayed Match-to-Sample and Oddball), and standard scores from a neuropsychological test battery (Working Memory Test Battery for Children) was performed on data from participants between 6–18 years old. The correlation analysis (p < .05) results showed a common maturational trend in working memory performance between these two types of tasks. Applying PCA (Eigenvalues > 1), the scores of the first extracted component were significantly correlated (p < .05) to most behavioral measures, suggesting some commonalities of the processes of age-related changes in the measured variables. The results suggest that this first component would be related to age but also to individual differences during the cognitive maturation process across childhood and adolescence stages. The fourth component would represent the speed-accuracy trade-off phenomenon as it presents loading components with different signs for reaction times and errors.
This paper provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) hydrogen and fuel cell activities within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), focusing on key targets, progress towards meeting those targets, and materials-related issues that need to be addressed. The most recent, state-of-the-art data on metrics such as cost, durability, and performance of fuel cell and hydrogen technologies are presented. Key technical accomplishments to date include a 50% reduction in the modeled high volume cost of fuel cells since 2006, and an 80% cost reduction for electrolyzers since 2002. The statuses of various hydrogen production, delivery, and storage technologies are also presented along with a summary of materials-related challenges for hydrogen infrastructure technologies such as compression, dispensing, seals, pipeline materials/embrittlement, and storage materials. Specific examples and areas requiring more research are discussed. Finally, future plans including EERE’s lab consortium approach such as HyMARC (Hydrogen Storage Materials Advanced Research Consortium) and FC-PAD (Fuel Cell Performance and Durability) Consortia, are summarized.
Researchers, motivated by the need to improve the efficiency of natural language processing tools to handle web-scale data, have recently arrived at models that remarkably match the expected features of human language processing under the Now-or-Never bottleneck framework. This provides additional support for said framework and highlights the research potential in the interaction between applied computational linguistics and cognitive science.
The emergence of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in transportation and stationary power sectors offers the world important and potentially transformative environmental and energy security benefits. In recent years, research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has contributed substantially to the development of these technologies. Enhanced performance and reduced cost in automotive fuel cells are important examples of achievement. The research investments are clearly paying off, as commercial fuel-cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are being rolled out by major car manufacturers today. With increasing market penetration of FCEVs, enabling technologies for the affordable and widespread production, storage and delivery of renewable hydrogen are becoming increasingly important. Long term commercial viability of hydrogen and fuel cells in the commercial marketplace will rely on continued materials research on several important fronts. Examples include the discovery and development of: (1) non-platinum-group-metal catalysts for next-generation fuel cells; (2) durable, high-performance photocatalytic materials systems for direct solar water splitting; (3) advanced materials-based systems for low-pressure, high-volumetric-density hydrogen storage; and (4) low-cost, hydrogen-compatible pipeline materials for hydrogen delivery and distribution. Research innovations in macro-, meso- and nano-scale materials are all needed for pushing forward the state-of-the-art in these areas. New approaches in accelerated materials development facilitated by a national Energy Materials Network of advanced scientific resources in theory, computation and experimentation are being adopted at DOE. Application of these approaches to address the key materials challenges in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies are discussed.
The rational search of novel bioactive molecules against pathogens with immunomodulatory activity is presently one of the most significant approaches to discover and design new therapeutic agents for effective control of infectious diseases, such as the infection caused by Leishmania parasites. In the present study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the recently characterized immunomodulatory compound 11α,19β-dihydroxy-7-acetoxy-7-deoxoichangin, a seco-limonoid derived from the bark of Raputia heptaphylla (Pittier) using: (1) peritoneal macrophages and (2) Mesocricetus auratus hamsters infected with Leishmania (V.) panamensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis. We observed the ability of this seco-limonoid to induce the effective control of the parasite either in vitro [determining an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 59 µm at the infection model] and in vivo (inducing clinical improvement or even cure in infected animals treated compared with the groups of animals treated with vehicle solution or meglumine antimoniate).
This study’s aim is to adapt the Health Care Communication Questionnaire in a Spanish sample, and then test the psychometric properties of the adapted instrument. To do so, the questionnaire was adapted for the Spanish context and then applied in a pilot study as well as a final study. The final sample consisted of 200 patients at Morales Meseguer Hospital in Murcia, Spain. The results show that this adaptation’s psychometric properties were similar to those of the original questionnaire. As for item analysis, all items obtained discriminant indices > .30. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the same structure as that of the original questionnaire (χ2/df = 1.345; CFI = .983; IFI = .983; TLI = .977; RMSEA = .042), with indices reflecting adequate goodness of fit. Also, results from the analysis of each dimension’s internal consistency had coefficients between .71 and .86. We conclude that the Spanish version of the HCCQ has adequate psychometric properties, is useful, and will serve its purpose in the context in which it will be used.
In a general and broad sense, ‘restitution’ means restoration, i.e. returning something lost or stolen. From a legal point of view, ‘restitution’ refers to a specific set of remedies designed to restore what the defendant has gained at the plaintiff 's expense to the plaintiff. By their very nature, restitutionary remedies always entail something wrong that therefore has to be redressed.
Restitution is applicable to a wide range of different situations, from contracts made by mistake to uses of another's assets without the owner's consent. In all such cases, the legal system tries to restore things to the scenario of nothing wrong having even happened by returning everything to the right place, as it was before the wrongful conduct that triggered restitution. In doing so, all possible restitutionary solutions share a common goal: preventing unjust enrichment.
What we currently know as the law of restitution and unjust enrichment was developed from a number of more specific remedies and causes of action that have been identified by common law and civil law systems in different ways. Quasi-contracts, constructive trusts, accounting for profits, rescission, equitable lien, subrogation, indemnity and contribution, among others, are legal responses in situations in which someone does not rightfully gain the right to hold another's assets or to get profit from them.
Legal systems have tried to identify a general principle on which these separate remedies are based, and they have found it in the general prohibition on unjust, or unjustified, enrichment. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that no one is entitled to retain unjustified enrichment. In all legal systems the law on unjust enrichment is largely devoted to distinguishing between unjust and not unjust enrichment. Transfers of money or assets made in performance of valid contracts or as a valid gift are deemed justified, while transfers made by mistake or as a consequence of void contracts or invalid gift s are not justified. The former allow the money to remain; the latter require restoration, as noted above.
The Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner Automolus rufipectus is one of 19 endemic bird species found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) in northern Colombia but until recently it was considered a sub-species of the Ruddy Foliage-gleaner Automolus rubiginosus. Consequently, published information on its distribution and ecology is lacking, and while it is classified as near- threatened, this designation was based on limited quantitative data. To improve our knowledge of the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner’s geographical distribution, elevation range, population density, habitat use and conservation status, we analysed both historical and recent site locality records and carried out variable distance transects within forested habitats and shade coffee plantations. We modelled the environmental niche of the species and subsequently estimated its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, as well as population size. Our results consistently showed that the distribution of the Santa Marta Foliage-gleaner is more restricted than previously considered, both geographically and by elevation (we redefine elevation range as 600–1,875 m). This suggests that the species is more at risk of habitat transformation and combined with our estimates of population size (< 10,000 individuals), it is likely that the species will be uplisted to a higher threat category. More positively, and contrary to published accounts, we found that approximately 40% of the species’ range lies within protected areas. Nevertheless, we recommend the implementation of strategies to maintain forest cover on the western flank of the SNSM and further research to better define the species’ habitat needs and population dynamics.