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One of the main health-related worries for older adults is becoming dependent. Even healthy older adults may worry about becoming dependent, generating guilt feelings due to the anticipation of future needs that others must solve. The guilt associated with self-perception as a burden has not been studied in older adults, and there is no instrument available to measure these feelings.
To adapt the Self-Perceived Burden Scale (SPBS; Cousineau et al., 2003) for the assessment of feelings of guilt for perceiving oneself as a burden for the family in older adults without explicit functional or cognitive impairment.
Participants were 298 older adults living independently in the community. Participants completed the assessment protocol, which included measures of guilt associated with self-perception as a burden, depressive and anxious symptomatology, self-perceived burden, and sociodemographic information.
Results from exploratory, parallel and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the scale, named Guilt associated with Self-Perception as a Burden Scale (G-SPBS), has a unidimensional structure, explaining 57.04% of the variance of guilt. Good reliability was found (Cronbach’s alpha = .94). The results revealed significant (p < .01) positive associations with depressive and anxious symptomatology.
These findings suggest that the G-SPBS shows good psychometric properties which endorse its use with healthy community older adults. Also, guilt associated with perceiving oneself as a burden seems to be a relevant variable that can contribute to improving our understanding of psychological distress in older adults.
Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Evidence suggests the incidence of non-affective psychotic disorders (NAPDs) varies across persons and places, but data from the Global South is scarce. We aimed to estimate the treated incidence of NAPD in Chile, and variance by person, place and time.
We used national register data from Chile including all people, 10–65 years, with the first episode of NAPD (International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision: F20–F29) between 1 January 2005 and 29 August 2018. Denominators were estimated from Chilean National Census data. Our main outcome was treated incidence of NAPD and age group, sex, calendar year and regional-level population density, multidimensional poverty and latitude were exposures of interest.
We identified 32 358 NAPD cases [12 136 (39.5%) women; median age-at-first-contact: 24 years (interquartile range 18–39 years)] during 171.1 million person-years [crude incidence: 18.9 per 100 000 person-years; 95% confidence interval (CI) 18.7–19.1]. Multilevel Poisson regression identified a strong age–sex interaction in incidence, with rates peaking in men (57.6 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 56.0–59.2) and women (29.5 per 100 000 person-years; 95% CI 28.4–30.7) between 15 and 19 years old. Rates also decreased (non-linearly) over time for women, but not men. We observed a non-linear association with multidimensional poverty and latitude, with the highest rates in the poorest regions and those immediately south of Santiago; no association with regional population density was observed.
Our findings inform the aetiology of NAPDs, replicating typical associations with age, sex and multidimensional poverty in a Global South context. The absence of association with population density suggests this risk may be context-dependent.
This work presents a multimode flight framework control scheme for a quadrotor based on the super twisting algorithm. The controller design stages for six flight control modes are presented. The stability proof for each flight mode is carried out by means of Lyapunov functions, while the stability analysis for the complete control scheme, when a transition from one flight mode to another occurs, is demonstrated using the switching nonlinear systems theory. The performance of the proposed framework is shown in a 3D simulation environment considering a forest fire detection task, which takes into account external disturbances.
Infertility is defined as a failure of spontaneous conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive measures . This entity represents a rising medical complaint since one out of eight couples find it difficult to conceive a child for the first time, and up to one in six find it difficult to conceive twice. Currently, 70 million couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility worldwide, accounting for an estimated overall prevalence of 15% .
Although it is known that certain emotion regulation processes produce a buffering effect on the relationship between life events and well-being, this issue has been poorly studied in the elderly population. Thus, the aim of the present study is to test and confirm a comprehensive model of the impact that past life events have on older adults’ psychological distress, exploring the possible mediating roles of emotion regulation processes. These include rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth.
In this cross-sectional study, 387 people over 60 years old residing in the community were assessed on life events, physical functioning, emotion regulation variables, psychological well-being, as well as symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The structural model tested achieved a satisfactory fit to the data, explaining 73% of the variance of older adults’ psychological distress. In addition, the main results suggest possible mediation effects of both the physical functioning and the emotional variables: rumination, experiential avoidance, and personal growth in the face of hardship.
These findings confirm the importance of emotion regulation processes in the final stages of life. They reveal the various adaptive and maladaptive mechanisms that underlie the relationship between life events and psychological distress. The findings suggest – both in the explanatory models of psychological well-being and in psychotherapeutic interventions – the importance of emotion regulation in the elderly population’s health.
Little is known about changes in brain functioning after first-episode psychosis (FEP). Such knowledge is important for predicting the course of disease and adapting interventions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a promising tool for exploring brain function at the time of symptom onset and at follow-up.
A systematic review of longitudinal fMRI studies with FEP patients according to PRISMA guidelines. Resting-state and task-activated studies were considered together.
Eleven studies were included. These reported on a total of 236 FEP patients were evaluated by two fMRI scans and clinical assessments. Five studies found hypoactivation at baseline in prefrontal cortex areas, two studies found hypoactivation in the amygdala and hippocampus, and three others found hypoactivation in the basal ganglia. Other hypoactivated areas were the anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex. Ten out of eleven studies reported (partial) normalization by increased activation after antipsychotic treatment. A minority of studies observed hyperactivation at baseline.
This review of longitudinal FEP samples studies reveals a pattern of predominantly hypoactivation in several brain areas at baseline that may normalize to a certain extent after treatment. The results should be interpreted with caution given the small number of studies and their methodological and clinical heterogeneity.
We present the first results of the MINDVIEW project. An innovative imaging system for the human brain examination, allowing simultaneous acquisition of PET/MRI images, has been designed and constructed. It consists of a high sensitivity and high resolution PET scanner integrated in a novel, head-dedicated, radio frequency coil for a 3T MRI scanner. Preliminary measurements from the PET scanner show sensitivity 3 times higher than state-of-the-art PET systems that will allow safe repeated studies on the same patient. The achieved spatial resolution, close to 1 mm, will enable differentiation of relevant brain structures for schizophrenia. A cost-effective and simple method of radiopharmaceutical production from 11C-carbon monoxide and a mini-clean room has been demonstrated. It has been shown that 11C-raclopride has higher binding potential in a new VAAT null mutant mouse model of schizophrenia compared to wild type control animals. A significant reduction in TSPO binding has been found in gray matter in a small sample of drug-naïve, first episode psychosis patients, suggesting a reduced number or an altered function of immune cells in brain at early stage schizophrenia.
Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are less aware of their cholesterol levels and have a higher burden of associated adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes than non-Latino whites. Investigations of the associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in this population have often occurred within the context of metabolic syndrome and are limited to select lipids despite the fact that triglycerides (TGs) may be more relevant to the health of Hispanics/Latinos.
Baseline data from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, collected from 2008 to 2011, was used to investigate the associations of lipid levels (i.e., TG, total cholesterol, TC; low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C) with cognition (i.e., learning, memory, verbal fluency, and digit symbol substitution, DSS), adjusting for relevant confounders.
In 7413 participants ages 45 to 74 years from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, and South American backgrounds, separate, fully adjusted linear regression models revealed that TG levels were inversely associated with DSS performance; however, this relationship was no longer significant once additional cardiovascular disease risk factors were added to the model (p = .06). TC and LDL-C levels (separately) were positively associated with learning and verbal fluency regardless of adjustments (p-values < .05). Separate analyses investigating the effect modification by background and sex revealed a particularly robust association between TC levels and DSS performance for Puerto Ricans and Central Americans (albeit in opposite directions) and an inverse relationship between TG levels and DSS performance for women (p-values < .02).
It is important to consider individual lipid levels and demographic characteristics when investigating associations between cholesterol levels and cognition in Hispanics/Latinos.
Cancer during pregnancy has an incidence of 1/1,000, and when diagnosed, the most common ones are breast cancer (1/10,000), Hodgkin’s lymphoma (1/6,000), and head and neck cancer (1/10,000). If a diagnosis is made during pregnancy, the treatment cannot wait until delivery, and there is concern about the effects that radiotherapy may have on the foetus. The multidisciplinary group has to assess and ethically make decisions with regard to the mother and foetus.
A 35-year-old female, a carrier of Behcet’s disease, underwent 5 years of treatment with hydroxychloroquine, prednisone and low-molecular-weight heparin (the patient being a carrier of Behcet’s disease, there is a high risk for cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx with an HR of 2·11, so the cancer could be related to the tonsil). The patient’s oncological situation started on December 2017 with a volume increase in preauricular, parotid and right mandibular angle, with a progressive growth. At this time, the foetus was of 17·5 weeks of gestation. An oral cavity tumour that invaded the right retromolar triangle was observed, and upon biopsy, a basaloid squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed.
Radiotherapy treatment was started at 22 weeks of gestation; intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was planned with a dose of 69·96 Gy to the primary tumour and 59·4 Gy to ganglion levels II, III and IV, bilaterally in 33 fractions. At fraction 27 a significant decrease in tumour volume was noted, so adaptive radiotherapy was performed to complete the treatment. Currently the patient has no clinical evidence of tumour pathology.
The risk of radiation exposure in pregnant women (after 20 weeks of gestation), being treated for cancers of the tonsil, reaching the foetus is minimal, with a reduced risk of a few or no effects.
Radiotherapy in tonsil cancer has been shown to be effective in combination with chemotherapy for local control of the disease. In the case of this pregnant patient, radiotherapy, as the only modality, provided local control and little exposure of radiation to the foetus.
Species distribution models (SDMs) are statistical tools used to develop continuous predictions of species occurrence. ‘Integrated SDMs’ (ISDMs) are an elaboration of this approach with potential advantages that allow for the dual use of opportunistically collected presence-only data and site-occupancy data from planned surveys. These models also account for survey bias and imperfect detection through the use of a hierarchical modelling framework that separately estimates the species–environment response and detection process. This is particularly helpful for conservation applications and predictions for rare species, where data are often limited and prediction errors may have significant management consequences. Despite this potential importance, ISDMs remain largely untested under a variety of scenarios. We performed an exploration of key modelling decisions and assumptions on an ISDM using the endangered Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii) as a test species. We found that site area had the strongest effect on the magnitude of population estimates and underlying intensity surface and was driven by estimates of model intercepts. Selecting a site area that accounted for the individual movements of the species within an average home range led to population estimates that coincided with expert estimates. ISDMs that do not account for the individual movements of species will likely lead to less accurate estimates of species intensity (number of individuals per unit area) and thus overall population estimates. This bias could be severe and highly detrimental to conservation actions if uninformed ISDMs are used to estimate global populations of threatened and data-deficient species, particularly those that lack natural history and movement information. However, the ISDM was consistently the most accurate model compared to other approaches, which demonstrates the importance of this new modelling framework and the ability to combine opportunistic data with systematic survey data. Thus, we recommend researchers use ISDMs with conservative movement information when estimating population sizes of rare and data-deficient species. ISDMs could be improved by using a similar parameterization to spatial capture–recapture models that explicitly incorporate animal movement as a model parameter, which would further remove the need for spatial subsampling prior to implementation.
The regulatory framework of the red octopus (Octopus maya) fishery includes total allowable catches (TAC), which are based on studies conducted on the population that occurs in shallow waters. In fact, most of the biological studies of this species refer to the fraction of the population that occupies waters less than 30 m deep; however, O. maya can occur up to a 60 m depth. The aim of this study is to assess the stock of O. maya that occupies waters between 30 m and 60 m deep. Four research cruises were carried out during the closed and fishing seasons, from May 2016 to January 2017. An average of 29 sampling sites were surveyed in each cruise (±2 sampling sites) using a commercial vessel with a uniform sampling effort. In each sampling site, the swept area, the total number of octopuses captured, the total weight of the catch, and the individual weight of octopuses were recorded. Biomass was obtained with four methods: stratified random method, swept area method, geostatistical biomass model, and an unpublished method of weighted swept area. The four methods provided consistent results. The distribution pattern of species was in patches, although before the fishing season started it was more homogeneous. The fraction of the population that occurs between 30 m and 60 m deep consisted mostly of adult organisms, so it could be contributing significantly to the recruitment of the entire population, even to the fraction that is exploited.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Title V Cooperative Project of the UPR-MSC and UCC has demonstrated that educational interventions in CTR are very effective in fulfilling the objective of promoting awareness, stimulate interest and increase the knowledge, skills and opportunities, to US, GS and F (participants) in CTR. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The training sessions (TS) offered through the Title V initiative have become an engine for the involvement in CTR for participants from higher education institutions island-wide. TS consisted of cycles –level 1 and 2–: Research Education Towards Opportunities (RETO,I,II) and Mentorship Offering Training Opportunities for Research (MOTOR,I,II), ending in the formation of the Clinical and Translational Mentoring Teams (CTMT)s, in which participants, paired by their research interests, were mentored by a well-established CT researchers in their research project, to be developed in the Intensive Development and Experiences in Advancement of Research and Increased Opportunities (IDEARIO). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Up to date, 4 TS-level 1 and 2 TS-level 2 were offered. Eighty (80) participants completed level 1, distributed: 42 (52.5%) US in RETO, 21 (26.25%) GS and 17 (21.25%) F in MOTOR and 17 participants completed level 2, distributed: 4 (23.52%) US in RETO, 6 (25.29%) GS and 7 (41.17%) F in MOTOR. From which, 15, with 8 CT researchers, formed 5 CTMTs in different research areas – cardio, neuro, liver, renal, Zika–. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: US, GS and F were integrated in the active process throughout educational levels for their development in CTR.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
The work focuses on the analysis of electrochemical corrosion in synthetic salt medium of the TiC/Ni-20Cr composite through the polarization curve technique at four exposure times (0, 6, 12 and 24 h). The composite was prepared by liquid infiltration of the liquid alloy into a porous body of TiC. It was found a continuous and homogeneous distribution of the reinforcing material in the interconnected matrix, having a residual porosity of 6.49 vol.%. According to the electrochemical results, in both samples the highest corrosion rate (CR) was obtained at 12 h exposure due to the rupture of the film of the corrosion products, allowing the interaction of chloride ions with the metal surface. The CR of the composite was slightly higher than that of the alloy at all exposure times, so that the presence of the reinforcing particles and the residual porosity reduce the corrosion resistance of the matrix in the composite. The mechanism of corrosion observed in the alloy and the composite was by pitting, however, the composite also presents crevice corrosion by a differential aeration cell mechanism formed between the metal matrix and the ceramic reinforcement, affected by the residual porosity as confirmed by electron microscopy examination.
In this work, two objectives were addressed. First, the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was explored for the first time as a potential antecedent of the proactive behaviors of job crafting. Second, the potential mediating role of the affective organizational commitment in this relationship was analyzed. To address these purposes, a field study was conducted with a sample of 428 workers. Following a set of hypotheses, the results of the measurement model, χ2 (df) = 494.288 (215); CFI = .920; TLI = .906; RMSEA = .066, showed that the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was significantly correlated with three of the four dimensions of job crafting (r = .19 with ISO-JR, r = .15 with IC-JD and; r = .17 with IST-JR; p < .001) and with affective organizational commitment (r = .27, p < .001). In addition, through a structural equation model, χ2(df) = 494.895 (219); CFI = .921; TLI = .909; RMSEA = .065, positive and significant indirect effects were found from the visual aesthetic assessment of the workplace to the same three dimensions of job crafting, all through the affective organizational commitment: .17 with ISO-JR, .25 with IC-JD and, .23 with IST-JR; 95% CI [.097, .276], [.161, .361] and [.161, .361], respectively. The results obtained provide useful evidence for researchers and managers about the value of providing an aesthetically satisfactory workplace, which would enhance the affective commitment of employees and, consequently, positively affect the proactive behaviors of job crafting.
The implantation and controlled release of growth factors can enhance the proliferation and differentiation of cells that promote new bone formation at defect sites. Therefore, chitosan polymer microspheres were prepared by the water-in-oil emulsion (W/O) method and solvent freeze-drying, using glutaraldehyde as an ionic crosslinker, along with the lyophilization of solvents, to microencapsulate growth factors, preventing denaturation. The microspheres were loaded with recombinant bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Rh-BMP-2). They were spherical in shape, with a rough surface ranging in particle size from 0.4 to 1.6 μm. The yield percentage with respect to the polymer was 70% and the BMP-2 load was regulated by the initial protein dose. BMP-2 release experiments were performed for 7 days in PBS solutions at pH 4 and 7.4. The results showed that the protein release rate was only 2% lower at pH 7.4. BMP-2/chitosan microspheres were compatible with the MG-63 cell line (ATCC®CRL-1427™Homo sapiens bone osteosarcoma) and could be considered drug delivery vehicles in bone tissue engineering applications.
The hot rolling process reduces a slab passing through a series of work-rolls to obtain a strip of target thickness. Developing robust, efficient, and accurate simulation methods improve the process. This research aims to minimize the hot rolling time, bending of work rolls, thermal crown, and wear of work rolls, subject to some process constraints. The problem solution is by using a multi-objective genetic algorithm with four function objectives. The second generation of the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm was chosen to solve the problem of this research. A probed constitutive model has been incorporated into the algorithm to compute the flow stress as a function of the chemical composition of steels. The algorithm implemented to minimize the four objectives proposed obtained the optimal schedule and associated makespan.
Caliochory, or seed dispersal by birds as nest material, has been reported for several species, but its effectiveness remains unclear in most cases. Darwin’s finches are traditionally regarded as seed predators, but the observation of two nests challenges this assumption by demonstrating that they can act as seed dispersers via caliochory. Darwin’s finches incorporate cotton-like materials into their nests, including seeds of Darwin’s cotton (Gossypium darwinii), a shrub endemic to the Galápagos (Ecuador). Bird nests typically break down after intense rainfall, so the seeds incorporated into nests might benefit from suitable conditions for germination. By simulating the germination conditions experienced over a 72-h period by cotton seeds in a naturally fallen nest, this study qualitatively confirms the long-term viability of at least a small fraction of the seeds at the surface of the nest. Darwin’s finches might therefore provide seed-dispersal services to Darwin’s cotton and possibly, other native and exotic plants of the Galápagos commonly incorporated into nests. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.