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The indigenous psychologies (IPs) stress the importance of research being grounded in the conditions and culture of the researcher's own society due to the dominance of Western culture in mainstream psychology. The nature and challenges of the IPs are discussed from the perspectives of science studies and anthropology of knowledge (the study of human understanding in its social context). The Element describes general social conditions for the development of science and the IPs globally, and their development and form in some specific countries. Next, some more specific issues relating to the IPs are discussed. These issues include the nature of the IPs, scientific standards, type of culture concept favored, views on the philosophy of science, understanding of mainstream psychology, generalization of findings, and the IPs' isolation and independence. Finally, conclusions are drawn, for example with respect to the future of the IPs.