Two models simulating snow avalanches impacting retaining dams at oblique angles of incidence are presented.
First, a lumped-mass model applying the Voellmy-Perla equation is used to calculate the path of the centre-of-mass along the side of a retaining dam.
Secondly, a one-dimensional continuum model, applying depth-integrated equations of balance of mass and linear momentum, is expanded to take into account that real avalanche flows are three-dimensional. The centre-line of the avalanche path is determined by the flowing material as it progresses down the channelized avalanche path. The nonlinear constitutive equations comprise viscosity, visco-elasticity and plasticity.
Both models are calibrated by simulations of a registered avalanche following a strongly curved channel. The path and the run-up height of the avalanche on the natural deflecting dam with oblique angle of incidence as calculated by the two models, are compared with the observations made.