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The population of the Critically Endangered Mauritius fody Foudia rubra fell by 55% over 1975–1993 because of habitat destruction and predation. The species was believed to be dependent on a small grove of introduced, non-invasive Cryptomeria japonica trees that offered protection from nest predation. We investigated the current population size and distribution of the fody and compared nesting success in forestry plantations to that of a released population on an offshore island. The population size on the mainland has remained stable over the past 10 years, with increases in pine Pinus spp. plantations, but continues to decline in areas of predominantly native vegetation. Only 16% of pairs found were estimated to nest in native tree species. Up to 81% of nest failures on the mainland were attributed to predation but nesting success in C. japonica and pine trees was similar to that of a released population on a predator-free offshore island. The mainland population is increasingly dependent on plantations for survival and we predict this will continue. Management and protection of non-invasive exotic species, together with creation of native habitat refuges on the mainland and offshore islands can be used to increase numbers of threatened birds in areas where predator control is not feasible.
Fennel is a major invasive plant in many lower elevation natural areas in coastal California. Three identical field experiments were conducted to evaluate glyphosate and triclopyr for control of fennel. Treatments included each herbicide applied alone and in various combinations. We also compared broadcast applications to spot spraying of individual fennel plants because spot spraying is a commonly used technique in natural area weed management. Most treatments controlled fennel well when evaluated 6 wk and 1 yr after treatment, with the exception of the lowest rate of glyphosate. Purple needlegrass, a native perennial grass, was present in two of the sites. In most, but not all, treatment and site combinations, it was not significantly harmed by the herbicides. The spot spray applications were less effective and used more herbicide per unit area than the broadcast spraying.
Italian ryegrass interference in broccoli was measured in field experiments and the data fit a rectangular hyperbolic competition model. The model predicted 58% of broccoli yield loss related to Italian ryegrass density when pooled over three y. An economic threshold value of 4.9 Italian ryegrass plants m−1 of crop row was determined to be the density required to cause a 3.6% yield loss, equal to postemergence weed control costs. Italian ryegrass densities of 600 to 1000 plants m1 of broccoli row caused 100% yield loss.
Four experiments (three in Macedonia, Greece and one in Holtville, CA) were conducted in 1988 and 1989 to evaluate foliar applications of picloram, glyphosate alone and with adjuvant, and triclopyr for the control of established silverleaf nightshade. Silverleaf nightshade control was determined by comparing stem population at the time of herbicide application to stem population 6 to 11 mo after application. Picloram, averaged over rate and location, controlled silverleaf nightshade consistently, restricting regrowth to less than 5%. Silverleaf nightshade control with glyphosate alone or with adjuvant varied with location, regrowth ranged from 0 to 69%. Regrowth of silverleaf nightshade treated with triclopyr approached that of the untreated control.
Creeping wartcress was first identified in the Imperial Valley of southeastern California in 1982. From two limited invasions of approximately 2 ha each, by 1987 this weed had infested 1500 ha. Creeping wartcress can behave as an annual or biennial weed and is a member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Creeping wartcress seed germinates from September through March and flowers first appear in racemes in late February, continuing through May.
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