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There is still a need for short, practical, and daily-appropriate scales to distinguish between normal cognitive aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or dementia for patients with memory complaints. This study aimed to determine validity and reliability of AD8 (Dementia Screening Interview) to detect both MCI and dementia in Turkish geriatric outpatients.
Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed in 334 patients, who attended with their informants to the geriatric outpatient clinic for memory complaints. In addition to the AD8, they were screened using Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and Mini-Mental State Examination. The diagnosis of dementia and MCI was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - fifth edition (DSM-5) criteria.
The mean age of the patients was 74.5±8.5. Of them, 156 were considered as non-cognitive impairment, 60 as MCI, and 118 as dementia. Cronbach's α value of the AD8 was 0.928. The total AD8 scores were found to be negatively correlated with the MMSE scores (r = −0.801), and positively correlated with CDR score (r = 0.879) (p < 0.001, for each). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.979 for cognitive impairment, and 0.999 for dementia. We found that AD8 can show dementia and MCI when the cut-off values are ≥5 and 3–4, respectively, with a sensitivity of 100% and 81.67% and specificity of 96.3% and 93.59%.
AD8 is one of the fast, simple, and sensitive screening methods for detecting both minor and major cognitive impairments. With regard to these features, it can be used in older adults attending the primary care settings with memory complaints.
Depression is a common and serious healthcare problem for older adults. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of GDS-4 and GDS-5 in Turkish, and to establish a new short-form Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) for our population, and also determine the superiority of each short scale to another.
A total of 437 outpatients were enrolled in the study. A researcher evaluated all participants according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria, and then another researcher applied GDS-15 to all participants. We obtained the answers of short GDS forms, examined in this study, from GDS-15 forms. After Cohen's κ analysis, we compared the diagnostic value of each question for geriatric depression according to their κ values, and developed three (TGDS-3), four (TGDS-4), five (TGDS-5), and six (TGDS-6) question scales to screen geriatric depression in Turkish population.
A total of 437 participants were assessed. The mean age (SD) of the patients was 72.95 years (7.37).Cronbach's α values of GDS-4 and GDS-5 were <0.70. Cronbach's α values of TGDS-3, TGDS-4, TGDS-5, and TGDS-6 were >0.70. The best cut-off values were ≥5 for GDS-15 and GDS-5, and ≥1 for others.
GDS-15 is the most powerful screening scale for geriatric depression. GDS-4 and GDS-5 are not eligible for depression screening in Turkish older adults. All new short scales are valid and reliable, and TGDS-4 is a practical, less time-consuming option for daily practice.
Comprehensive neurocognitive assessment may not be performed in clinical practice, as it takes too much time and requires special training. Development of easily applicable, time-saving, and cost effective screening methods has allowed identifying the individuals that require further evaluation. The aim of present study was to assess the diagnostic value of the Attended With (AW) and Head-Turning Sign (HTS) for screening cognitive impairment (CI).
Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed in 529 elderly outpatients, and the presence or absence of AW and HTS was investigated in them all.
Of the 529 patients, of whom the mean age was 75.67 ± 8.29 years, 126 patients were considered as CI (102 dementia, 24 mild CI). The patients with positive AW had significantly lower scores on Mini-Mental State Examination, Cognitive State Test, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and activities of daily living compared to AW (−) patients (p < 0.001). Similar significant findings were obtained in the patients with positive and negative HTS (p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of AW in detecting CI were 92%, 37%, 31.4%, and 93.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of HTS were 80%, 64%, 41.8%, and 91.5%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve was 0.90 for AW and 0.82 for HTS.
AW and HTS are fast, simple, effective, and sensitive methods for detecting CI. Therefore, they can be used for older adults attending the primary care settings with memory loss. Those with positive AW or HTS can be referred to the relevant centers for detailed cognitive assessment.
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