To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter discusses the cumulative effect of oral parafunctions (OPFs) on the health of a patient's natural dentition, dental restorations, oral soft structures, and temporomandibular joints (TMJs). Nail biting and other OPFs are common in young children. Consequently, unmanaged parafunctional habits may contribute to the etiology of trauma in the stomatognathic systems of adolescents and adults. Prevention, early detection, and intervention are important clinical activities to diminish the influences of chronic OPFs on the teeth, muscles, and temporomandibular joints. The dentist can assist in detecting OPFs, protecting vulnerable oral and TMJ structures, and making appropriate referrals. Although occlusal splints can protect the oral structures from wear, they have little effect on parafunctional habits. Growing evidence suggests that psychological interventions to address factors contributing to the maintenance of these adverse habits can assist patients in overcoming them.