Increased glutamate levels in the associative-striatum have been described in subjects at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR); nevertheless, it is unclear whether this abnormality predicts the conversion to psychosis. Nineteen subjects at UHR and 26 controls were studied using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjects at UHR were clinically followed for 2 yr. Seven UHR subjects (37%) transitioned to a psychotic disorder and the remaining 12 did not exhibit psychotic symptoms at the most recent follow-up. The psychosis transition group had higher glutamate levels compared to both non-transition and control groups (p = 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively; effect size 1.39). These pilot findings suggest that the conversion to psychosis is associated with increased glutamate levels in the associative-striatum.