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This study investigated whether higher maternal choline levels mitigate effects of marijuana on fetal brain development. Choline transported into the amniotic fluid from the mother activates α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on fetal cerebro-cortical inhibitory neurons, whose development is impeded by cannabis blockade of their cannabinoid-1(CB1) receptors.
Marijuana use was assessed during pregnancy from women who later brought their newborns for study. Mothers were informed about choline and other nutrients, but not specifically for marijuana use. Maternal serum choline was measured at 16 weeks gestation.
Marijuana use for the first 10 weeks gestation or more by 15% of mothers decreased newborns' inhibition of evoked potentials to repeated sounds (d’ = 0.55, p < 0.05). This effect was ameliorated if women had higher gestational choline (rs = −0.50, p = 0.011). At 3 months of age, children whose mothers continued marijuana use through their 10th gestational week or more had poorer self-regulation (d’ = −0.79, p < 0.05). This effect was also ameliorated if mothers had higher gestational choline (rs = 0.54, p = 0.013). Maternal choline levels correlated with the children's improved duration of attention, cuddliness, and bonding with parents.
Prenatal marijuana use adversely affects fetal brain development and subsequent behavioral self-regulation, a precursor to later, more serious problems in childhood. Stopping marijuana use before 10 weeks gestational age prevented these effects. Many mothers refuse to cease use because of familiarity with marijuana and belief in its safety. Higher maternal choline mitigates some of marijuana's adverse effects on the fetus.
Une analyse du comportement en fatigue multiaxiale à grand nombre de cycles est conduite à travers la simulation numérique d’agrégats polycristallins. Le matériau métallique choisi est un cuivre de microstructure CFC. Le VER, constitué d’un ensemble de 300 grains d’orientation aléatoire équiprobable et de géométrie équiaxe, est sollicité au niveau de la limite de fatigue définie pour un nombre de cycles de 107 cycles, le but étant de calculer les quantités mécaniques relatives à l’échelle mésoscopique (moyenne à l’échelle du grain) après stabilisation du comportement cyclique local. Les résultats de la simulation montrent la grande dispersion des variables mécaniques à cette échelle mésoscopique. Une analyse statistique de la réponse de l’agrégat est proposée pour différents chargements purement alternés : traction, torsion, traction-torsion combinées en-phase. Grâce à la connaissance des quantités mécaniques locales pour un nombre suffisamment grand de microstructures différentes, une analyse critique de certains critères d’endurance multiaxiaux (Crossland et Dang Van) est conduite.
To compare a specialized interprofessional team approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation with usual home care for stroke survivors using home care services.
Randomized controlled trial of 101 community-living stroke survivors (<18 months post-stroke) using home care services. Subjects were randomized to intervention (n=52) or control (n=49) groups. The intervention was a 12-month specialized, evidence-based rehabilitation strategy involving an interprofessional team. The primary outcome was change in health-related quality of life and functioning (SF-36) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes were number of strokes during the 12-month follow-up, and changes in community reintegration (RNLI), perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Kessler-10), cognitive function (SPMSQ), and costs of use of health services from baseline to 12 months.
A total of 82 subjects completed the 12-month follow-up. Compared with the usual care group, stroke survivors in the intervention group showed clinically important (although not statistically significant) greater improvements from baseline in mean SF-36 physical functioning score (5.87, 95% CI -3.98 to 15.7; p=0.24) and social functioning score (9.03, CI-7.50 to 25.6; p=0.28). The groups did not differ for any of the secondary effectiveness outcomes. There was a higher total per-person costs of use of health services in the intervention group compared to usual home care although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.76).
A 12-month specialized, interprofessional team is a feasible and acceptable approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation that produced greater improvements in quality of life compared to usual home care. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463229
As part of its recruitment process, the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) will face the challenge of screening out individuals who are sufficiently impaired in their ability to provide informed consent. In the process of developing the design of the CLSA, a review of the literature was performed with the goal of identifying currently existing telephone cognitive screening tools that can be used to identify eligible study participants for population-based research on aging. We identified 12 telephone screening tools, four of which were based on the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and eight that were based on other face-to-face screening tools. Characteristics – including the constructs measured, the length of time for administration, the scoring/classification scheme, and any information regarding the validation of each tool – were extracted and summarized.
Evaluating the ecological impact of an oil spill is a complex issue
requiring coherently articulated examination of the sequence of interactions
that link the cell, where contaminants exert their effects, to the
ecosystem, where interactions with human activities arise. This sequence of
interactions traverses the frontiers between scientific disciplines
(chemistry, toxicology, physiology, and fisheries ecology). Using the common
sole (Solea solea L.) as a model species for the coastal habitats polluted by the
“Erika” oil spill, our research project attempted to define indices of functional
integrity that characterised the consequences of fuel exposure at the
different biological levels. The coupling of field observations with
experimental laboratory work revealed how functional alterations which are
readily observable within individuals and their organs are progressively
obscured as investigation progresses towards more complex organisational
levels. Some of the approaches and indices are proposed as instruments for
evaluating the impact of contamination by hydrocarbons.
Studies suggest that symptoms of traumatic grief constitute a distinct syndrome worthy of diagnosis.
A consensus conference aimed to develop and test a criteria set for traumatic grief.
The expert panel proposed consensus criteria for traumatic grief. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses tested the performance of the proposed criteria on 306 widowed respondents at seven months post-loss.
ROC analyses indicated that three of four separation distress symptoms (e.g. yearning, searching, loneliness) had to be endorsed as at least ‘sometimes true’ and four of the final eight traumatic distress symptoms (e.g. numbness, disbelief, distrust, anger, sense of futility about the future) had to be endorsed as at least ‘mostly true’ to yield a sensitivity of 0.93 and a specificity of 0.93 for a diagnosis of traumatic grief.
Preliminary analyses suggest the consensus criteria for traumatic grief have satisfactory operating characteristics, and point to directions for further refinement of the criteria set.
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