To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using a 1.5 Tesla (T) clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system for in vivo assessment of three histopathologically different brain tumor models in mice.
We selected mouse models in which tumor growth was observed in different intracranial compartments: Patched+/- heterozygous knock-out mice for tumor growth in the cerebellum (n = 5); U87 MG human astrocytoma cells xenografted to the frontal lobe of athymic mice (n =15); and F5 (n = 15) or IOMM-Lee (n = 15) human malignant meningioma cells xenotransplanted to the athymic mouse skull base or convexity. Mice were imaged using a small receiver surface coil and a clinical 1.5 T MRI system. T1- and fast spin echo T2-weighted image sequences were obtained in all animals. Gadolinium was injected via tail vein to better delineate the intracranial tumors. Twenty mice were followed by serial MRI to study tumor growth over time. In these mice, images were typically performed after tumor implantation, and at two week intervals. Mice were euthanized following their last imaging procedure, and their tumors were examined by histopathology. The histopathological preparations were then compared to the last MR images to correlate the imaging features with the pathology.
Magnetic resonance imaging delineated the tumors in the cerebellum, frontal lobes and skull base in all mouse models. The detection of intracranial tumors was enhanced with prior administration of gadolinium, and the limit of resolution of brain tumors in the mice was 1-2 mm3. Sequential images performed at different time intervals showed progressive tumor growth in all animals. The MR images of tumor size and location correlated accurately with the results of the histopathological analysis.
Magnetic resonance imaging of murine brain tumors in different intracranial compartments is feasible with a 1.5 T clinical MR system and a specially designed surface coil. Tumors as small as 1-2 mm3 can be detected with good image resolution. Mice harbouring nascent brain tumors can be followed sequentially by serial MR imaging. This may allow for a noninvasive means by which tumor growth can be measured, and novel therapies tested without resorting to sacrifice of the mice.
Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MOCOD) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by sulphite oxidase enzyme deficiency. The neuropathological findings are consistent with a toxic insult to the brain that causes severe neuronal loss, reactive astrogliosis and spongiosis. The mechanisms responsible for these changes are unknown.
The case is a male infant with MOCOD who died at nine months of age from pneumonia. At autopsy, a complete neuropathological examination was performed including conventional immunohistochemical staining. In addition, brain sections were stained cytochemically with shikata and orcein which stain for disulphide bonds. The elemental composition of cortical cells was then analyzed in the scanning electron microscope using backscatter electron imaging and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry.
Neurons demonstrated cytoplasmic staining with shikata and orcein cytochemically when compared to control sections. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis of these neurons confirmed the presence of excess sulphur and unexpectedly revealed excess magnesium accumulation. None of these findings was found in an age-matched control.
In MOCOD we found abnormal accumulation of sulphur and magnesium in neurons. It is postulated that sulphur-containing compound(s) that are formed as a result of MOCOD cause excitotoxic neuronal injury in the presence of excess magnesium.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.