In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency anaemia (IDA) and explored the relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and IDA in adolescent girls. A total of 1037 adolescent girls from Suihua, China were enrolled. Hb, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) and serum IgG antibodies to H. pylori were measured. Participants with IDA and co-existing H. pylori infection (n 80) who had an intake of >25 mg/d of Fe were assigned randomly to the intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group were administered a 12-week course of oral EDTA–Na–Fe (60 mg Fe/dose, three times a week) and a 2-week course of colloidal bismuth subcitrate, amoxicillin and metronidazole. Subjects in the control group were administered EDTA–Na–Fe alone. Hb, SF and sTfR were reassessed 3 months after the 12-week regimen ended. Prevalence of anaemia, Fe deficiency (defined as SF < 12·0 μg/l), IDA and H. pylori infection in the population of 1037 was 19·5, 40·4, 17·1 and 31·2 %, respectively. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the IDA group was 46·9 %, while the non-anaemic group had 28·1 % prevalence. A significant increase in Hb and SF and a decrease in sTfR value were found in the intervention group and the H. pylori-negative group. Findings suggest that IDA is still one of the prominent problems in adolescent girls. There is an association between H. pylori infection and IDA. Treatment of H. pylori infection is associated with a more rapid response to oral Fe therapy.