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Geologists and archaeologists have long known that the bluestones of Stonehenge came from the Preseli Hills of west Wales, 230km away, but only recently have some of their exact geological sources been identified. Two of these quarries—Carn Goedog and Craig Rhos-y-felin—have now been excavated to reveal evidence of megalith quarrying around 3000 BC—the same period as the first stage of the construction of Stonehenge. The authors present evidence for the extraction of the stone pillars and consider how they were transported, including the possibility that they were erected in a temporary monument close to the quarries, before completing their journey to Stonehenge.
Fitness is enhanced by determining when to behave prosocially. Elevation, an uplifting emotion elicited by witnessing exemplary prosociality, upregulates prosociality in the presence of prosocial others, as such contexts render prosociality profitable and/or antisociality costly. Prior research examines responses to a single highly prosocial individual. However, the profitability of enhancing prosociality hinges not only on potential interactions with a single actor, but also on the actions of others. Accordingly, information regarding how others respond to the prosocial exemplar may influence elevation elicitation and corresponding changes in prosocial motivation. If others reciprocate the exemplar's prosociality, or pay prosociality forward, this expands opportunities for the observer to profit by increasing prosociality, and thus could enhance elevation elicitation. Conversely, if others exploit the exemplar, this may diminish the profitability of prosociality, as the observer who acts prosocially may similarly be exploited and/or the resources with which the exemplar could reciprocate will be depleted. Conducting three online studies of Americans in which information regarding the responses of others to a prosocial exemplar was manipulated, we find that, against predictions, prosocial responses by the beneficiaries of prosociality generally do not enhance elevation among observers, whereas, consonant with predictions, antisocial responses markedly diminish elevation among observers.
Democratic countries, such as Australia, face the dilemma of preserving public and national security without sacrificing fundamental freedoms. In the context where the rule of law is an underlying assumption of the constitutional framework, Emergency Powers in Australia provides a succinct analysis of the sorts of emergency which have been experienced in Australia and an evaluation of the legal weapons available to the authorities to cope with these emergencies. It analyses the scope of the defence power to determine the constitutionality of federal legislation to deal with wartime crises and the 'war' on terrorism, the extent of the executive power and its relationship to the prerogative, the deployment of the defence forces in aid of the civil power, the statutory frameworks regulating the responses to civil unrest, and natural disasters. The role of the courts when faced with challenges to the invocation of emergency powers is explained and analysed.
Point-of-Care Ultrasound (POCUS) has become an important diagnostic tool for hospital-based clinicians. This study assesses the role of POCUS at Pemberton Music Festival 2016 (Pemberton, British Columbia [BC], Canada), a remote mass gathering where physicians face limited resources, complex disposition decisions, and a dynamic clinical environment.
This study prospectively evaluated the impact of POCUS on patient diagnosis, management, and disposition based on the self-report of the study physicians. The authors hypothesized that having ultrasound available for use would aid in diagnostic and management decisions and would reduce the need to transfer patients off-site to other health care facilities, reducing impact on the acute health services in the host community.
A handheld ultrasound was available for use by physicians in the main medical tent. All participating physicians self-reported their training and comfort using POCUS. After each POCUS scan, physicians completed a survey and recorded the indication for use, scans performed, and impact on patient diagnosis, management, and disposition.
In total, POCUS was used on 28 of the 686 patients treated in the main medical tent; POCUS was reported to narrow the differential diagnosis in 64% of cases and altered the working diagnosis in 21% of cases. Its use changed the management plan in 39% of patients. Its use was reported to reduce the burden on broader health care resource utilization in 46% of cases and prevented ambulance transport off-site in 32% of cases (nine cases in total). This corresponded to an absolute risk reduction of 1.3% for the percentage of patients transferred to hospital (PPTH; relative risk reduction of 53%).
Physicians reported that POCUS improved the diagnosis, management, and disposition of select patients at a remote, multi-day music festival. Also, POCUS reduced ambulance transfers off-site and reduced the perceived burden on broader health care utilization.
PragerR, SedgwickC, LundA, KimD, HoB, StachuraM, GutmanS. Prospective Evaluation of Point-of-Care Ultrasound at a Remote, Multi-Day Music Festival. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):484–489.