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In order to implement a Scenario of π− catalysis of Deuterium–Tritium (DT) thermonuclear reactions in a dense and hot precompressed target plasma envisioned in the Intertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) fast ignition approach, we pay detailed attention to the stopping of negative pions arising from electro-disintregration of target D and T nuclei by ultra-relativistic e-beams. Emphasis is put on a mostly non-relativistic pion velocity regime (E ≤ 10 MeV).
Ultra-cold plasmas obtained by ionization of atomic Rydberg states are qualified as classical and strongly coupled electron fluids. They are shown to share several common trends with ultra-cold electron flows used for ion-beam cooling. They exhibit specific stopping behaviour to charged particle beams, which may be used for diagnostic purposes. Ultra-cold plasmas are easily strongly magnetized. Then, one expects a strongly anisotropic behaviour of low ion velocity slowing down when the target electron cyclotron radius becomes smaller than the corresponding Debye length.
We evaluate the correlated stopping power of a swift chain of N charges aligned with its (non-relativistic) velocity. We find that the distance required between two charges for the chain to act as a separated set of isolated charges is much larger than the dynamical screening length because the wake effect is very important when the chain elements are situated close to each other.
A thorough analysis of the electromagnetic instabilities encountered
in the beam plasma interaction physics shows that the most unstable modes
are not the ones which are usually studies. We characterize these most
unstable modes and determine the patterns they create.
Magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and inertial confinement fusion
(ICF) are critically contrasted in the context of far-distant travels
throughout solar system. Both are shown to potentially display superior
capabilities for vessel maneuvering at high speed, which are unmatched by
standard cryogenic propulsion (SCP). Costs constraints seem less demanding
than for ground-based power plants. Main issue is the highly problematic
takeoff from earth, in view of safety hazards concomitant to radioactive
spills in case of emergency. So, it is recommended to assemble the given
powered vessel at high earth altitude ∼ 700 km, above upper
atmosphere. Fusion propulsion is also compared to fission powered one,
which secures a factor of two improvement over SCP. As far a specific
impulse (s) is considered, one expects 500–3000 from fission and as
much as 104–105 from fusion through
deuterium–tritium (D-T). Next, we turn attention to the most
performing fusion reaction, i.e., proton–antiproton annihilation
with specific impulse ∼ 103–106 and
thrust–to–weight ratio ∼ 10−3–1.
Production and costs are timely reviewed. The latter could drop by four
orders of magnitude, which is possible with successful MCF or ICF.
Appropriate vessel designs will be presented for fusion as well as for
antimatter propulsion. In particular, ion compressed antimatter nuclear II
(ICAN-II) project to Mars in 30 days with fusion catalyzed by 140 ng of
antiprotons will be detailed (specific impulse ∼ 13500 s).
We have focused our attention on the stopping mechanisms involved in
the recently proposed ion beam-target US program. This mechanism
emphasizes out production of warm dense matter through pulsed ion beams,
linearly accelerated, and interacting with thin foils in Bragg peak
conditions. We reviewed the relevant energy loss mechanisms involved at
moderate and low velocity ion projectile. Small velocities close to zero
are given some attention.
In the fast ignition scenario for inertial fusion, a relativistic
electron beam is supposed to travel from the side of the fusion pellet to
its core. One one hand, a relativistic electron beam passing through a
plasma is a highly unstable system. On the other hand, the pellet core is
denser than its side by four orders of magnitude so that the beam makes
its way through a important density gradient. We here investigate the
effect of this gradient on the instabilities. It is found that they should
develop so early that gradient effects are negligible in the linear
We will consider relativistic electron beam interacting with plasma
and study the electromagnetic instabilities obtained for arbitrarily
oriented wave vectors ranging from two-stream to filamentation
instabilities. For these unstable modes, we will study every temperature
effects, namely beam and plasma normal, and parallel temperatures.
Temperatures are supposed to be non-relativistic and modeled through water
bag distributions. It is found that only normal beam temperature and
parallel plasma temperature have a significative influence over the growth
rates for wave vector making an angle with the beam larger than a critical
angle θc which is determined exactly. The largest
growth rate being reached for a wave vector making an angle with the beam
smaller than θc, it is not damped by any kind of
temperatures. We finally explore collisions effects and show they can
reduce the largest growth rate.
We investigate intermediate unstable modes between two stream and
filamentation instabilities. We detail the problem of the angle between
the wave vector and its electric field and use an electromagnetic
formalism allowing for any value for this angle. We display analytical
results for 3 different models: cold beam-cold plasma, cold beam-hot
plasma and cold relativistic beam-hot plasma. We demonstrate that plasma
temperature prompts a critical angle for which waves are unstable at any
k and show that for a relativistic beam, the most unstable waves
are obtained for wave vectors which are neither normal nor perpendicular
to the beam.
We address the issues of collective stopping for intense relativistic
electron beams (REB) used to selectively ignite precompressed deuterium +
tritium (DT) fuels. We investigate the subtle interplay of electron
collisions in target as well as in beam plasmas with quasi-linear
electromagnetic growth rates. Intrabeam scattering is found effective in
taming those instabilities, in particular for high transverse
Two distinct issues of recent concern for ion–plasma
interactions are investigated. First, the subtle connection
between quantum and classical ion stopping is clarified by varying
the space dimension. Then we evaluate the range of thermonuclear
αS′ in dense plasmas simultaneously
magnetized and compressed.
We reconsider correlated ion stopping in plasmas with the aim to emphasize the basic features and their underlying physics. For a better understanding of the effects connected with correlated ion stopping, it is useful to distinguish two types of correlated ion stopping, characterized by a small or large ratio of the correlation length of the ions to the screening length in the plasma. These two types of correlated ion stopping are of rather different character. We describe and explain these differences and give some generic examples of ion structures and ion clusters to demonstrate the basic features of both types of correlated stopping. This shows that only the short-range correlations always yield an enhanced stopping, whereas the long-range correlations, in general, reduce the stopping compared to single, individual ions. We mainly consider classical plasmas; the basic features, however, remain unchanged for a jellium target as well as for a plasma at any degeneracy.
The stopping at low (V < Vth) and high (V ≤ Vth) velocity, of N strongly correlated ion debris is investigated for the case of a dense and classical electron target. The considered topologies of cluster projectile charges are taken cubic like, and circular, respectively. A specific emphasis is given to the N-dependence, and also to the topological features of the corresponding enhanced correlated stopping.
Correlated stopping of N ion debris flowing at same velocity in a lithium target is worked out from the Basbas-Ritchie model of 2-cluster stopping in degenerate electron jellium. A very large energy loss enhancement is demonstrated. It is strongly modulated by the ions' topological arrangement. Relevance to inertial fusion driven by intense cluster ion beam is stressed.