Background: Blood breakdown products such as bilirubin and bilirubin oxidation products damage cortex and white matter after intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). Here, we tested whether albumin can antagonize axonal damage caused by bilirubin. Methods: The effect of albumin on white matter injury was investigated using brain slices in vitro. After CD-1 mice brain slices were cut using a vibratome, they were incubated in one of five solutions: artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF), bilirubin ACSF, bilirubin and albumin ACSF, bilirubin ACSF that had albumin added 1 hour(h) later, and bilirubin and denatured albumin ACSF. All solutions were continuously aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Subsequently, electrophysiological recordings of axonal response to electrical stimulation were performed 8h after incubation of brain slices. Results: Bilirubin treatment profoundly damaged both myelinated and unmeylinated axons in brain slices, but had a greater effect on myelinated axons. Unmyelinated axons were found to be more susceptible to damage from denatured albumin. Albumin treatment at 0 h and 1 h significantly diminished bilirubin toxicity for both myelinated and unmyelinated axons, with 1 h delayed albumin treatment conferring greater neuroprotection. Conclusions: These results implicate the role of albumin in preventing bilirubin-induced axonal damage following ICH and its potential therapeutic value for hemorrhagic stroke.