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This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
We report on a large, multi-wavelength campaign to observe variability across the electromagnetic spectrum in the M dwarf flare star EV Lacertae, in 2001 September. The campaign involved X-ray (Chandra ACIS-S+HETG), UV (HST/STIS), and optical (McDonald) spectra, as well as optical photometry and multi-frequency radio (VLA) observations. EV Lac demonstrated both frequent and extreme variability during the course of the two day intensive recordings. Dispersed X-ray spectra confirm the metal underabundance seen in other active stars. The increase in continuum fluxes at short X-ray wavelengths during flare intervals compared to quiescent intervals signals the creation of high temperature plasma, a signature of the flare process. Multi-wavelength comparisons reveal interesting trends: X-ray flare frequencies are within the range predicted by optical observations, yet there is no correspondence between X-ray flares and optical flares in our data. Two UV flares occur during the rise stages of X-ray flares; a major radio flare is accompanied by a large optical flare, which has no apparent counterpart in the X-ray. The results give conflicting evidence for the applicability of the Neupert effect interpretation in stellar coronae.
In the present paper, the phylogeographies of two monogenean species, Pseudokuhnia minor and Kuhnia scombri, on the same species of host, Scomber japonicus, were studied. Fragments of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were sequenced for 264 individuals of P. minor and 224 individuals of K. scombri collected from 10 localities along the coast of China. Genetic diversity of K. scombri was higher than that of P. minor, which may imply that P. minor has a lower evolution rate and/or is a younger species. The neighbour-joining (NJ) trees of both parasites were comprised of two clades without association to sample sites, which is the signature of remixing populations following past division. Analyses of molecular variance and pairwise fixation index revealed different genetic structures for the populations of these two closely related species along the coast of China: P. minor without significant genetic structure, while K. scombri has some genetic differentiation. Both neutrality tests and mismatch distribution suggested that the populations of these two species of parasites experienced population expansion in the late Pleistocene era due to the glacial–interglacial cycles induced by climatic oscillations.
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and nutritional status of military personnel deployed to Afghanistan and how these were related to physical fitness. In a cohort of British Royal Marines (n 249) deployed to Afghanistan for 6 months, body size and body composition were estimated from body mass, height, girth and skinfold measurements. Energy intake (EI) was estimated from food diaries and energy expenditure measured using the doubly labelled water method in a representative subgroup. Strength and aerobic fitness were assessed. The mean body mass of volunteers decreased over the first half of the deployment ( − 4·6 (sd 3·7) %), predominately reflecting fat loss. Body mass partially recovered (mean +2·2 (sd 2·9) %) between the mid- and post-deployment periods (P< 0·05). Daily EI (mean 10 590 (sd 3339) kJ) was significantly lower than the estimated daily energy expenditure (mean 15 167 (sd 1883) kJ) measured in a subgroup of volunteers. However, despite the body mass loss, aerobic fitness and strength were well maintained. Nutritional provision for British military personnel in Afghanistan appeared sufficient to maintain physical capability and micronutrient status, but providing appropriate nutrition in harsh operational environments must remain a priority.
Ethics in post-medieval responses to the Middle Ages form the main focus of this volume. The six opening essays tackle such issues as the legitimacy of reinventing medieval customs and ideas, at what point the production and enjoyment of caricaturizing the Middle Ages become inappropriate, how medievalists treat disadvantaged communities, and the tension between political action and ethics in medievalism. The eight subsequent articles then build on this foundation as they concentrate on capitalist motives for melding superficially incompatible narratives in medievalist video games, Dan Brown's use of Dante's Inferno to promote a positivist, transhumanist agenda, disjunctures from medieval literature to medievalist film in portrayals of human sacrifice, the influence of Beowulf on horror films and vice versa, portrayals of war in Beowulf films, socialism in William Morris's translation of Beowulf, bias in Charles Alfred Stothard's Monumental Effigies of Great Britain, and a medieval source for death in the Harry Potter novels. The volume as a whole invites and informs a much larger discussion on such vital issues as the ethical choices medievalists make, the implications of those choices for their makers, and the impact of those choices on the world around us. Karl Fugelso is Professor of Art History at Towson University in Baltimore, Maryland. Contributors: Mary R. Bowman, Harry Brown, Louise D'Arcens, Alison Gulley, Nickolas Haydock, Lisa Hicks, Lesley E. Jacobs, Michael R. Kightley, Phillip Lindley, Pascal J. Massie, Lauryn S. Mayer, Brent Moberley, Kevin Moberley, Daniel-Raymond Nadon, Jason Pitruzello, Nancy M. Resh, Carol L. Robinson, Christopher Roman, M.J. Toswell.