Cyberbullying has aroused scientific interest given the impact it has on the lives of young people. The present study proposes to analyze the relationship between self-concept (Self-Description Questionnaire I), academic goals (Achievement Goals Tendencies Questionnaire), and the participation of the roles of victim, bully and bystander in cyberbullying (Cyberbullying. Screening for peer bullying and cyberbullying), by gender and grade. The sample was composed of 548 students (49.8% girls) in 5th and 6th grade of Primary Education (Mage = 10.95, SD = 0.7). Logistic regression analyses showed the explicative role of social self-concept and learning goals in the three roles, highlighting the academic self-concept and achievement goals in the victims, as well as the high social reinforcement goals in bullies and bystanders. This relation varied slightly according to gender and grade, being the motivational orientation towards school achievement a protector of victimization in girls and 6th grade students. The findings are discussed, pointing out their involvement in the development of preventive cyberbullying programs in preadolescence.