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The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of anatomical changes in prostate cancer patients on the target coverage when using 6 MV beams-VMAT therapy and to propose strategies that allow us to evaluate the dose or correct it by normalization without having to perform a new simulation.
Methods and materials:
Ten patients of high-risk prostate cancer were chosen for the study. All test plans were delivered using the same isocenter and monitor units as the original plan and compared against the original unedited plan. The expansion and contraction of body contours due to size changes was mimicked by increasing and decreasing the body contour with depths of −2, −1·5, …, 1·5, 2 cm, in the anterior, and both lateral directions of the patient. A total of 90 plans were evaluated, 9 for each patient. Dose-volume histogram statistics were extracted from each plan and normalized to prescription dose.
Weight changes resulted in considerable dose modifications to the target and critical structures. Plans were found to be varied with 2·9% ± 0·3% per cm SSD change for VMAT treatment with a correlation index close to one. Therefore, doses variations were linear to the changes of depth. Gamma index evaluation was performed for the 10 renormalized plans. All of them passed criteria of 3%/3 mm in at least 98.2% of points. Eight of them passed criteria in 99% points. Gamma index 4%/4 mm passed 100% points in all patients for the chosen region of interest.
The dosimetry estimation presented in this study shows important data for the radiation oncology staff to justify whether a CT rescan is necessary or not when a patient experiences weight changes during treatment. Based on the results of our study, discrepancies between real dose and planned dose were >5% for 1·7 cm of difference in external contour in the anterior and both lateral directions of the patient.
Silene ciliata (Caryophyllaceae) is a key species to test evolutionary hypotheses in a global warming context. The recent advances in Next Generation Sequencing technologies can help in providing clues about climate-mediated local adaptation. In the present study, we analysed the full transcriptome of six individuals of S. ciliata from Central Spain, by aligning it with the transcriptome of S. latifolia. We aimed (a) to identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the transcriptome of the species, (b) to describe the biological function of the polymorphic genes expressed and (c) to identify loci that may be involved in local adaptation processes at optimal and marginal populations of the species. We identified a total of 147,118 SNPs distributed throughout 12,688 sequences. The number of polymorphic sequences annotated was 8023. One hundred thirty sequences containing polymorphisms strongly associated with optimal and marginal conditions were selected. Gene ontology searches were successful for 118, and many of these were related to responses to stress (n = 19) and abiotic stimulus (n = 16). Genomic data generated provide a starting point for further research on the identification of candidate genes related to local adaptation and other processes in the species.
The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
This paper offers a comprehensive discussion of the cardinal numeral system of Italian Sign Language. At the lexical level, we present the different formational strategies used to generate cardinal numerals and we provide evidence that in the younger generations of signers, the sign one has lost the function of indefinite determiner and is now used as a cardinal only. At the syntactic level, we show that the attested variation in the ordering between the cardinal and the noun is in part due to definiteness and contrastive focus. We account for this variation within the cartographic approach to syntax. Finally, we offer a principled explanation for the reason why cardinals inside Measure Phrases are not subject to word order variation, but always precede the measure noun.
To characterise clusters of individuals based on adherence to dietary recommendations and to determine whether changes in Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores in response to a personalised nutrition (PN) intervention varied between clusters.
Food4Me study participants were clustered according to whether their baseline dietary intakes met European dietary recommendations. Changes in HEI scores between baseline and month 6 were compared between clusters and stratified by whether individuals received generalised or PN advice.
Individuals in cluster 1 (C1) met all recommended intakes except for red meat, those in cluster 2 (C2) met two recommendations, and those in cluster 3 (C3) and cluster 4 (C4) met one recommendation each. C1 had higher intakes of white fish, beans and lentils and low-fat dairy products and lower percentage energy intake from SFA (P<0·05). C2 consumed less chips and pizza and fried foods than C3 and C4 (P<0·05). C1 were lighter, had lower BMI and waist circumference than C3 and were more physically active than C4 (P<0·05). More individuals in C4 were smokers and wanted to lose weight than in C1 (P<0·05). Individuals who received PN advice in C4 reported greater improvements in HEI compared with C3 and C1 (P<0·05).
The cluster where the fewest recommendations were met (C4) reported greater improvements in HEI following a 6-month trial of PN whereas there was no difference between clusters for those randomised to the Control, non-personalised dietary intervention.
Improving diet and other lifestyle behaviours has considerable potential for reducing the global burden of non-communicable diseases, promoting better health across the life-course and increasing wellbeing. However, realising this potential will require the development, testing and implementation of much more effective behaviour change interventions than are used conventionally. Evidence-based, personalised (or stratified) interventions which incorporate effective behaviour change techniques (BCT) and which are delivered digitally are likely to be an important route to scalable and sustainable interventions. Progress in developing such interventions will depend on the outcomes of research on: (i) the best bases for personalisation of dietary advice; (ii) identification of BCT which are proven to enhance intervention efficacy; (iii) suitable platforms (digital-based tools) for collection of relevant participant characteristics (e.g. socioeconomic information, current diet and lifestyle and dietary preferences) linked with intelligent systems which use those characteristics to offer tailored feedback and advice in a cost-effective and acceptable manner. Future research should focus on such interventions aiming to reduce health inequalities and to improve overall public health.
Astracme mucronata and Ophiopaepale goesiana are recorded for the first time from the Brazilian coast. The specimens examined were collected from the States of Ceará (Canopus Bank) and Rio Grande do Norte (Potiguar Basin) in north-eastern Brazil. Descriptions, geographical range and taxonomy notes about the species are provided. This study expands the number of species of Ophiuroidea for the Brazilian coast from 134 to 136 species.
Delimiting the distribution of a species is a complex task because many determining factors are difficult to assess in the field. This is important because distribution is a key factor in the decision-making process for conservation. One example is the Bearded Wood Partridge Dendrortyx barbatus, a species endemic to the temperate forests of the Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO) mountain range in Mexico. Lack of knowledge of its distribution has generated confusion over the assignment of the correct risk category. With the aim of predicting the distribution area of the Bearded Wood Partridge and contributing to strategies for its conservation, we updated and extended the knowledge of its distribution by modelling its ecological niche using GARP and MaxEnt algorithms. We also analysed its environmental distribution using principal components analysis, and contrasted the two most important environmental variables with the species’s distribution based on vegetation type. We found that the area potentially occupied by this species covers 17,956 km2 according to GARP and 12,974 km2 according to MaxEnt. We suggest that there is a biogeographic barrier which limits the distribution of this species in the southern part of its range. The abiotic variables that best explain its distribution are average annual precipitation and elevation, both of which coincide well with the distribution of cloud forest. A redefinition of the current range as recognised by IUCN is proposed along with the need to change its national risk category.
The tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is an important parasite of cattle in many areas of the tropics. Characterization of molecules involved in mechanisms such as vitellogenesis and embryo development may contribute to a better understanding of this parasite's physiology. The vitellin-degrading cysteine endopeptidase (VTDCE) is the most active enzyme involved in vitellin hydrolysis in R. microplus eggs. Here we show an association between VTDCE and vitellin in an additional site, apart from the active site. Our data also demonstrate cysteine endopeptidase activity in different tissues such as ovary, gut, fat body, salivary gland and female haemolymph, where it is controlled by a physiological inhibitor. In R. microplus female gut, VTDCE is localized in areas of protein synthesis and trafficking with the underlying haemolymph. VTDCE is also localized in the ovary basal region, in vesicle membranes of ovary pedicel cells and in oocyte cytosol. These results suggest that VTDCE plays a role in vitellin digestion during tick development.
This report is divided in four parts: the first part summarizes the activities of the Commission between September 2006 and June 2008; the second part reports on recent advances in the physical study of planets and satellites. However, instead of attempting to cover the large body of new knowledge gathered over the last three years, we have chosen to highlight just a few exciting results – on Mercury, the exploration of unchartered terrains with ground-based imaging and a new measurement of its libration parameters, some spectacular findings from the Cassini mission inside the Saturnian system, and the results of methane-band spectrophotometric monitoring of Saturn over the last 13 years; the third part summarizes future plans now being drawn by the various space agencies for the exploration of planets and satellites in the solar system; the last part tries to project the activities of the Commission over the period June 2008–August 2009, and to express a few thoughts concerning the future developments in the field, and the role of the Commission therein.
Introduction – There is a need to develop composite indicators to monitor mental health care in countries such as Spain, where there is wide variability of care systems in 17 different regions. The aim of this study is to generate and to test the usability of synthetic indexes in Andalusia (Southern Spain). Method – Seven mental health indicators were selected by expert opinion from a previous list of simple indicators used to compare mental health care systems across Spain (Psicost-74). A Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to delineate 71 sectors based on the catchment areas of the mental health centers in Andalusia. Synthetic indexes were obtained through linear combinations of simple indicators via Principal Components Analysis (PCA), using activity data from the Mental Health Information System of Andalusia (SISMA). Maps of these indexes were drawn for 71 catchment areas. Results – Two synthetic indexes were obtained and showed high consistency in the PCA. The Care Load Index (component 1) related to population size and total outpatient care provided within the area. The Case Load Index (component 2) related to assisted morbidity in relation to the population size. The care load index was higher in populated urban areas, whereas the case load was higher in rural areas. Discussion – Care and case load indexes show a different pattern in urban and rural areas. This may be related to a different underlying model of care related to the degree of urbanisation. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) improved recognition and assessment of the spatial phenomena related to the mental health care system, and support policy decision making process in mental health.
Excavations at a cave site on the island of Palawan in the Philippines show occupation from c. 11000 BP. A fine assemblage of tools and faunal remains shows the reliance of hunter-foragers switching from deer to pig. In 9500-9000 BP, a human cremation burial in a container was emplaced, the earliest yet known in the region.
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