The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (ALBC) and the Society for the Preservation of Poultry Antiquities (SPPA) completed censuses of domesticated turkeys in 1997. The ALBC census targeted hatcheries and reported census figures for hens, while counting both hens and toms. Toms were about 10% of hen numbers. The ALBC census revealed that only eight seasonal hatcheries out of a total of 25 maintain breeding flocks, including 7 038 Bronze, 4 600 Large Whites, 664 Bourbon Reds, 381 Royal Palms, 62 Black, 60 Slate, 4 White Holland, and 3 Narragansett hens. The SPPA research included hatcheries and also private breeders, included both males and females, and also included anything the breeder deemed a variety. The census figures for the various varieties were: Bourbon Red 931, Royal Palm 717, Bronze 365, Black 211, White Midget 151, Slate 143, Narragansett 87, Buff 62, White Holland 38, Auburn 27, Lilac 24, Silver Auburn 19, Chocolate 12, Royal Nebraskan 8, Wisconsin 6, Spotted Nebraskan 3, 2 each of Dark Brown, Nebraska Royal, Nutmeg, and red, and 1 each of Chestnut, Fawn, and Lavendar. The results of these two approaches generated similar population rankings for these varieties. Both have concluded that the nonindustrial strains of turkeys have perilously low populations.