To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
BACKGROUND: Meningiomas are the most common primary benign brain tumors in adults. Given the extended life expectancy of most meningiomas, consideration of quality of life (QOL) is important when selecting the optimal management strategy. There is currently a dearth of meningioma-specific QOL tools in the literature. OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review, we analyze the prevailing themes and propose toward building a meningioma-specific QOL assessment tool. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted, and only original studies based on adult patients were considered. QOL tools used in the various studies were analyzed for identification of prevailing themes in the qualitative analysis. The quality of the studies was also assessed. RESULTS: Sixteen articles met all inclusion criteria. Fifteen different QOL assessment tools assessed social and physical functioning, psychological, and emotional well-being. Patient perceptions and support networks had a major impact on QOL scores. Surgery negatively affected social functioning in younger patients, while radiation therapy had a variable impact. Any intervention appeared to have a greater negative impact on physical functioning compared to observation. CONCLUSION: Younger patients with meningiomas appear to be more vulnerable within social and physical functioning domains. All of these findings must be interpreted with great caution due to great clinical heterogeneity, limited generalizability, and risk of bias. For meningioma patients, the ideal QOL questionnaire would present outcomes that can be easily measured, presented, and compared across studies. Existing scales can be the foundation upon which a comprehensive, standard, and simple meningioma-specific survey can be prospectively developed and validated.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
Additional high-quality evidence for predictors of peritonsillar abscess recurrence could lead to better-informed treatment decisions regarding tonsillectomy.
In this study, 172 patients, who had been diagnosed and treated for peritonsillar abscess, were evaluated at follow up. A retrospective review of medical records and a telephone survey were performed. The clinical characteristics analysed included underlying disease, laboratory findings and computed tomography findings. Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify risk factors for peritonsillar abscess recurrence.
The recurrence rate of peritonsillar abscess was 13.9 per cent. Univariate analysis indicated that extraperitonsillar spread of the abscess (beyond the peritonsillar area) on computed tomography and a history of recurrent tonsillitis were associated with recurrence. Multivariate analysis also indicated that extraperitonsillar spread (p = 0.007; hazard ratio = 3.399) and recurrent tonsillitis history (p < 0.001; hazard ratio = 11.953) were significant risk factors for recurrence.
Our results suggest that tonsillectomy may be indicated as a treatment for peritonsillar abscess in patients with a history of recurrent tonsillitis or extraperitonsillar spread on computed tomography.
Previous studies have implicated the relationship between environmental phthalate exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of childhood, but no studies have been conducted in children who have a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD obtained through meticulous diagnostic testing. We aimed to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine would be higher in children with ADHD than in those without ADHD and would correlate with symptom severity and cortical thickness in ADHD children.
A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations was performed; scores for ADHD symptoms, externalizing problems, and continuous performance tests were obtained from 180 children with ADHD, and brain-imaging data were obtained from 115 participants. For the control group, children without ADHD (N = 438) were recruited. Correlations between phthalate metabolite concentrations and clinical measures and brain cortical thickness were investigated.
Concentrations of phthalate metabolites, particularly the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolite, were significantly higher in boys with ADHD than in boys without ADHD. Concentrations of the di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) metabolite were significantly higher in the combined or hyperactive-impulsive subtypes compared to the inattentive subtype, and the metabolite was positively correlated with the severity of externalizing symptoms. Concentrations of the DEHP metabolite were negatively correlated with cortical thickness in the right middle and superior temporal gyri.
The results of this study suggest an association between phthalate concentrations and both the diagnosis and symptom severity of ADHD. Imaging findings suggest a negative impact of phthalates on regional cortical maturation in children with ADHD.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have increased in Western countries. However, there are limited data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Eastern countries. This nationwide study was conducted in 17 hospitals to determine temporal trends in CDI incidence (from 2004 to 2008) in South Korea. The total incidence of CDI in Korea was 1·7 cases/1000 adult admissions in 2004, and 2·7/1000 cases in 2008 (P = 0·028). When analysing the clinical features of 1367 CDI patients diagnosed in 2008, oral metronidazole was effective as a first-line treatment for CDI (61·9%). Relapse rate was 8·9% and complicated CDI was only observed in 3·6%. The incidence of CDI increased significantly in Korea from 2004 to 2008. Although the clinical features were milder than in Western countries, the increasing burden of CDI needs ongoing surveillance systems.
A multi-cross-correlation method (MCCM) was developed in a particle image velocimetry (PIV) auto-processing system to reduce spurious vectors and improve accuracy of measurements. This technique is an improvement based on conventional cross-correlation method (CCM). Four typical neighboring interrogation windows were specified to be overlapped and calculated by MCCM. A high cross-correlation value is obtained in which many particle images match up with their corresponding spatially shifted partners, and small cross-correlation peaks due to interference of noises during experiments are reduced. Several parameters such as out-of-plane motions, particle size, and seeding density are considered for checking both MCCM and conventional PIV algorithms. The examination gives authenticity to the merits of MCCM for avoiding particles loss or mistaken velocity vectors.
A distributed Brillouin fiber sensor was used to monitor the health of steel structures. We used this method on two steel beam specimens and longitudinal strain and cracks were detected well under different loads. The difference between the longitudinal strain measured by the distributed fiber sensor and that measured by strain gages is less than 4%. Traditional sensors or transducers that measure the average strain over a small region always miss cracks. The method proposed in this study gives very good results for the detection of cracks and the surrounding strain on a square pipe.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
A nonvolatile memory device with the multi-layered SiC nanocrystals embedded in the SiO2 dielectrics for long-term data storage was fabricated and its electrical properties were evaluated. The SiC nanocrystals were formed by using post thermal annealing process. The transmission electron microscope analysis showed the multi-layered SiC nanocrystals between the tunnel and the control oxide layers. The average size and density of the SiC nanocrystals were approximately 5 nm and 2×1012 cm-2, respectively. The memory window of nonvolatile memory devices with the multi-layered of SiC nanocrystals was about 2.7 V during the operations at ±10 V for 700 ms, and then it was maintained around at 1.1 V after 105 sec.
The fabrication of NCs is carried out using an innovative method, ultra-low energy (≤5 keV) ion implantation (ULE-II) into thin (6-9 nm) HfO2–based layers in order to form after subsequent annealing a controlled 2D array of Si NCs. The implantation of Si into HfO2 leads to the formation of SiO2–rich regions at the projected range due to the oxidation of the implanted Si atoms. This anomalous oxidation that takes place at room temperature is mainly due to humidity penetration in damaged layers. Different solutions are investigated here in order to avoid this oxidation process and stabilize the Si-phase. Finally, unexpected structures as HfO2 NCs embedded with SiO2 matrix are obtained and show interesting memory characteristics. Interestingly, a large memory window of 1.18 V has been achieved at relatively low sweeping voltage of ± 6 V for these samples, indicating their utility for low operating voltage memory device.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the acceptability and therapeutic efficacy of a preoperative single administration of long-acting 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist in an orally disintegrating tablet formulation, ramosetron, in breast cancer patients.
Two hundred and forty women, ASA I-II, aged 24–60 yr, undergoing elective breast cancer surgery, were randomized. A standardized anaesthetic technique was used. Patients were assigned to receive one of three treatment regimens (n = 80 in each group): no prophylactic antiemetics (Group A), single prophylactic intravenous injection of ramosetron 0.1 mg at the completion of surgery (Group B) or preoperatively oral administration of 0.1 mg of ramosetron (Group C). Episodes of nausea and vomiting, the use of rescue antiemetic treatment, degree of pain, adverse events and level of satisfaction were recorded.
The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first 24 h after the recovery in Groups B (27.8%) and C (25%) was decreased significantly compared with Group A (75.3%). The frequency of the use of rescue antiemetics was significantly lower in Group C (5.0%) compared with Groups A (53.2%) and B (15.2%). The patients in Group C were more satisfied with control of postoperative nausea and vomiting than others.
Preoperative oral administration of ramosetron at a dose of 0.1 mg is an acceptable and effective way of reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting in breast cancer patients.
An overview on current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation is given. This report is based on the results of the “Second International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation” held in Potsdam/Germany in September 2007. The properties of stimulated Brillouin scattering are presented for the compensation of phase distortions in combination with novel laser technology like ceramics materials but also for e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, and slow light. Photorefractive nonlinear mirrors and resonant refractive index gratings are addressed as phase conjugating mirrors in addition.
This study was performed to assess the efficacy and safety profile of combination treatment with S-1 and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
Eligibility criteria comprised: histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck; stage three or four disease with no evidence of distant metastasis; evaluable lesions; adequate organ function; age 20–80 years; and a performance status of two or less. Cisplatin was infused over one hour on day one (75 mg/m2) and S-1 was administered orally for 14 consecutive days (days two to 15). The dosages of S-1 were calculated according to the patients' body surface area: 50 mg twice a day (body surface area <1.5 m2) or 60 mg twice a day (body surface area >1.5 m2). Each course was repeated every three weeks. After two courses, tumour response was evaluated by computed tomography and laryngoscopy. If a response was evident (either complete or partial), the patient received one more course of chemotherapy, before undergoing radical treatment such as radiotherapy or surgery.
All 30 patients were assessable for toxicity, and 29 patients for treatment response. The overall response was 89.7 per cent (complete response: nine; partial response: 17). The two-year estimated overall survival rate was 79.2 per cent. Adverse reactions occurred 128 times during 81 courses in the 30 cases. The most common grade three to four adverse event was neutropenia, which occurred in eight patients. Cases of non-haematological grade three or four toxicity included nausea and vomiting in four patients, stomatitis in two and diarrhoea in one.
S-1 plus cisplatin combination chemotherapy is effective against locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, with only mild toxicity.
Alfentanil was reported to relax the rat aorta by direct action on the vascular smooth muscle. The aims of this in vitro study were to examine the effect of alfentanil on phenylephrine-induced contractions in the rat aorta and to determine the cellular mechanism associated with this process.
Endothelium-denuded aortic rings were suspended in order to record isometric tension. In the rings with or without 10−6 mol naloxone or 10−5 mol verapamil, the concentration–response curves for phenylephrine and potassium chloride were generated in the presence or absence of alfentanil (10−6, 5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol). In the rings exposed to a calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution, the contractile response induced by the addition of calcium was assessed in the presence or absence of alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol).
Alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol) attenuated (P < 0.05) the phenylephrine-induced contraction in the ring with or without 10−6 mol naloxone but had no effect on the phenylephrine-induced contraction in the rings pretreated with verapamil. Alfentanil (5 × 10−5, 10−4 mol) produced a significant rightward shift (P < 0.01) in the potassium chloride dose–response curve, and attenuated the contractile response (P < 0.001) induced by calcium in the calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution in a dose-dependent manner.
A supraclinical dose of alfentanil attenuates the phenylephrine-induced contraction via an inhibitory effect on calcium influx by blocking the l-type calcium channels in the rat aortic vascular smooth muscle.
Surveillance is an important component of influenza control. This report describes the establishment and first results of the Korean Influenza Surveillance Scheme (KISS), an integrated clinical and laboratory surveillance network involving 622 public health centres (PHCs) and private clinics. Sentinel physicians reported cases of influenza-like illness (ILI) weekly and forwarded specimens for virus isolation and characterization. Influenza activity during the opening 2000–2001 season was milder and delayed compared with previous years. The ILI consultation rate corresponded well with the number of influenza virus isolates, both peaking in week 10 of 2001. Influenza A(H3N2) was the dominant isolate. The peak ILI consultation rate was higher in private clinics than in PHCs (5·04 vs 1·79 cases/1000 visits). An evaluation questionnaire generated potential enhancements to the scheme. KISS appears to represent the pattern of influenza activity accurately and will have a valuable role in monitoring and preventing epidemics in Korea.
Zinc oxide and cobalt hydroxide films with ordered lamellar structures were electrochemically produced via interfacial surfactant templating. This method utilizes interfacial amphiphile assemblies on a working electrode as a template to electrodeposit inorganic nanostructures. Surfactants with anionic head groups (e.g. sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-hexadecanesulfonate sodium salt, dodecylbenzenesulfonate sodium salt, and dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt) formed bilayer assemblies with Zn2+ and Co2+ ions on the working electrode and guided the lamellar growth of ZnO and Co(OH)2 films. In order to gain the ability to precisely tailor inorganic lamellar structures, the effect of co-solvent and type of working electrode on the repeat distances, homogeneity and orientation of the interfacial amphiphilic bilayers were investigated. The results described here will provide a useful foundation to design and optimize synthetic conditions for electrochemical construction of inorganic lamellar structures.
We determined the most probable atomistic structure of an ultra-low-k material (k≅ 2.5) by computer simulations. Among the candidate structures generated by a molecular-dynamics calculation, the most probable one that reproduces the observed properties was selected using a first-principles density-functional-theory calculation. The candidate structures consisted of Si-O-Si network with some silicon atoms, each of which had a CH3 group or a hydrogen atom bonded. The structure with CH3 groups but no hydrogen atom reproduced the experimental properties best. This structure was then used to investigate the behaviors of the material irradiated with ultraviolet light.