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The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
The Antarctic Roadmap Challenges (ARC) project identified critical requirements to deliver high priority Antarctic research in the 21st century. The ARC project addressed the challenges of enabling technologies, facilitating access, providing logistics and infrastructure, and capitalizing on international co-operation. Technological requirements include: i) innovative automated in situ observing systems, sensors and interoperable platforms (including power demands), ii) realistic and holistic numerical models, iii) enhanced remote sensing and sensors, iv) expanded sample collection and retrieval technologies, and v) greater cyber-infrastructure to process ‘big data’ collection, transmission and analyses while promoting data accessibility. These technologies must be widely available, performance and reliability must be improved and technologies used elsewhere must be applied to the Antarctic. Considerable Antarctic research is field-based, making access to vital geographical targets essential. Future research will require continent- and ocean-wide environmentally responsible access to coastal and interior Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Year-round access is indispensable. The cost of future Antarctic science is great but there are opportunities for all to participate commensurate with national resources, expertise and interests. The scope of future Antarctic research will necessitate enhanced and inventive interdisciplinary and international collaborations. The full promise of Antarctic science will only be realized if nations act together.
We present new multiband photometric results for ROTSE-I δ Sct stars and the Fourier decomposition analysis. Our result shows that most of the stars classified as ROTSE-I δ Sct stars seem to be W UMa type eclipsing variable stars.
To evaluate an internet-based preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program for sustained reduction in antimicrobial prescribing and resulting cost savings.
Retrospective cohort study and cost analysis.
Review of all doses and charges of antimicrobials dispensed to patients over 6 years (July 1, 2005–June 30, 2011) at a tertiary care pediatric hospital.
Restricted antimicrobials account for 26% of total doses but 81% of total antimicrobial charges. Winter months (November–February) and the oncology and infant and toddler units were associated with the highest antimicrobial charges. Five restricted drugs accounted for the majority (54%) of charges but only 6% of doses. With an average approval rate of 91.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.1%–91.9%), the preapproval antibiotic stewardship program saved $103,787 (95% CI, $98,583–$109,172) per year, or $14,156 (95% CI, $13,446–$14,890) per 1,000 patient-days.
A preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program effectively reduces the number of doses and subsequent charges due to restricted antimicrobials years after implementation. Hospitals with reduced resources for implementing postprescription review may benefit from a preapproval antimicrobial stewardship program. Targeting specific units, drugs, and seasons may optimize preapproval programs for additional cost savings.
A total of 245 patients with confirmed 2009 H1N1 influenza were admitted to the intensive-care units of 28 hospitals (South Korea). Their mean age was 55·3 years with 68·6% aged >50 years, and 54·7% male. Nine were obese and three were pregnant. One or more comorbidities were present in 83·7%, and nosocomial acquisition occurred in 14·3%. In total, 107 (43·7%) patients received corticosteroids and 66·1% required mechanical ventilation. Eighty (32·7%) patients died within 30 days after onset of symptoms and 99 (40·4%) within 90 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the clinician's decision to prescribe corticosteroids, older age, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score and nosocomial bacterial pneumonia were independent risk factors for 90-day mortality. In contrast with Western countries, critical illness in Korea in relation to 2009 H1N1 was most common in older patients with chronic comorbidities; nosocomial acquisition occurred occasionally but disease in obese or pregnant patients was uncommon.
We report on experiments aimed at the generation and characterization of solid density plasmas at the free-electron laser FLASH in Hamburg. Aluminum samples were irradiated with XUV pulses at 13.5 nm wavelength (92 eV photon energy). The pulses with duration of a few tens of femtoseconds and pulse energy up to 100 µJ are focused to intensities ranging between 1013 and 1017 W/cm2. We investigate the absorption and temporal evolution of the sample under irradiation by use of XUV and optical spectroscopy. We discuss the origin of saturable absorption, radiative decay, bremsstrahlung and atomic and ionic line emission. Our experimental results are in good agreement with simulations.
We present a new observational project to study the hierarchical triple stellar system Algol, concentrating on the semidetached eclipsing binary at the heart of the system. Over 140 high-resolution and high-S/N spectra have been secured, of which 80 are from FIES at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and the remainder were obtained with BOES at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. All three components were successfully detected by the method of spectral disentangling, which yields the individual spectra of the three stars and also high-quality spectroscopic elements for both the inner and outer orbits. We present a detailed abundance study for the mass-accreting component in the inner orbit, which holds information on the history of mass transfer in the close inner binary system. We also reveal the atmospheric parameters and chemical composition of the tertiary component in the outer orbit.
We present physical parameters for the detached eclipsing binary KIC3858884 which has a δ-Scuti type pulsating secondary component. To derive orbital elements from the radial-velocity curve, high resolution Echelle spectra were obtained at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. The BOES spectra and Kepler photometric data were analyzed with well-known codes: JKTEBOP and Wilson-Devinney model for eclipsing light-curve synthesis, and Period04 for pulsation frequency analysis. After the iterative curve fitting, we determined the physical parameters of KIC3858884 as M1=2.02 ± 0.23M⊙, M2=2.02 ± 0.16M⊙, R1=3.61 ± 0.12R⊙, R2=2.84 ± 0.10R⊙, respectively.
New CCD photometric observations of SZ Her were obtained between February and May 2008. More than 1,100 times of minimum light spanning more than one century were used for the period analysis. We find that the orbital period of SZ Her has varied due to a combination of two periodic variations, with cycle lengths of P3 = 85.8 yr and P4 = 42.5 yr and semi-amplitudes of K3 = 0.013 days and K4 = 0.007 days, respectively. The most reasonable explanation for them is a pair of light-time-travel (LTT) effects driven by the existence of two M-type companions with minimum masses of M3 = 0.22 M⊙ and M4 = 0.19 M⊙, located at nearly 2:1 mean motion resonance. Then, SZ Her is a quadruple system and the 3rd and 4th components would stay in the stable orbital resonance.
Site-selective photolumiescence (PL) and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopies have been carried out at 6 K on the ∼1540nm 41/32 → 4I1/52 Er3+ transition in in-situ-doped GaN:Er which have detected nine differenct Er3+ sites and associated PL spectra. Three distinct Er3+ sites are identified in the in-situ-doped samples. For the in-situ-doped samples, the concentration of the various Er+3 sites are comparable while for the ion-implanted sample, the concertration of one Er3+ site was higher than the concentration of the other sites. In-situ-doped samples grown with different Ex-cell temperatures were considered, and the width of the PLE spectrum appears to be a function of the Er-cell temperature.
We report on a high transparency low resistance contact to p-GaN composed of a thin oxidized Ni/Au bilayer overcoated with indium tin oxide (NiO/Au/ITO). The NiO/Au/ITO layer shows a specific contact resistivity, c, of 1.8 × 10−3 Ωcm2 that is nearly ten times lower than conventional Ni/Au annealed under N2. Measurements on fully processed LEDs with a NiO/Au/ITO current spreading layer (CSL) show an operating voltage of around 4 V at 20 mA that is comparable to LEDs fabricated with a conventional Ni/Au CSL and a dramatic improvement over the previous ITO data. LED top surface light emission through the NiO/Au/ITO CSL is shown to be greater than that from LEDs with a conventional semi-transparent Ni/Au CSL. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using NiO/Au/ITO as a CSL for high performance GaN LEDs.
This work investigates dislocation etch pits in epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) GaN by wet chemical etching. A mixture of H2SO4 and H3PO4 was used as a dislocation etchant, and SEM and AFM were employed to observe the surface topography. For the as-grown sample, SEM images present the flat, smooth surface without any pits or hillocks. After the chemical etching, hexagonal shaped etch pits were observed at the edge of ELO GaN. AFM observation of etched ELO GaN displayed high densities of etch pits clustered in the “window” region and the coalescent line of two growing fronts. In contrast, the overgrowth region was nearly free of etch pits. Moreover, we observed that different sizes of etch pits dominated in “window” region and coalescent region. This implied different types dislocations dominated in these regions.
High peak electron mobilities were observed in free-standing c-plane GaN substrates. Two layers, a low mobility degenerate layer and a high mobility bulk layer, were present in these samples. The carrier concentrations and mobilities for the layers were extracted using two methods: 1) magnetic field dependent Hall effect analysis and 2) a simple two carrier model with the assumption that one of the layers is degenerate. In addition, measurements were performed after etching away the degenerate layer. The mobility of the bulk layer is found to peak at nearly 8000 cm2/Vs at 60K using the magnetic field dependent Hall effect data. Record room temperature mobility for bulk GaN of 1190 cm2/V s was measured.
The development of a self-aligned fabrication process for small emitter contact area (2×4 um2) GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors is described. The process features dielectric-spacer sidewalls, low damage dry etching and selected-area regrowth of p-GaAs(C) on the base contact or n-GaN/AlGaN on the emitter contact. Series resistance effects are still found to influence the device performance.
Highly porous silica films with pore size in the nanometer scale are being extensively studied as potential candidates for interlevel dielectrics. Because these dielectric materials appear in the form of thin films with a thickness of only several thousand Angstroms, conventional techniques are difficult to be readily applied to study their structure and porosity. We employed small angle scattering in the grazing incidence geometry in this study. Using high resolution xray beamline with synchrotron radiation source, we demonstrate that the small angle x-ray scatteirng (SAXS) data of the porous films can be obtained. The structure of sol-gel derived silica - xerogel films on silicon substrate studied by specular reflectivity and grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) will be presented.
Epitaxial TiC Ohmic and Schottky contacts to 4H-SiC were formed by a new deposition method, UHV co-evaporation with Ti and C60, at low temperature (< 500°C). We achieved a contact resistivity of 2 × 10−5Δcm2 at 25°C for as deposited Ohmic contacts on Al ion implanted 4H-Silicon carbide. The rectifying behavior of TiC Schottky contacts was also investigated using I-V and C-V. The measured Schottky barrier height (SBH) was 1.26 eV for n-type and 1.65 eV for p-type 4H-SiC using C-V measurements for frequencies ranging from 1kHz to 1MHz. LEED, RBS, XPS, and XRD measurements were performed to analyze composition ratio, interface reaction, and structural properties of the TiC epitaxial layer.
Using optical emission spectroscopy (OES), mass spectrometry (MS), and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), we are investigating a number of glow-discharge reactions as a function of RF power, flow rates, partial pressures, and H2 dilution under realistic thin-film deposition conditions.In this paper we report on the preliminary results of two studies:
1)The formation of radical and polymeric species in SiH4 and Si2H6 plasmas, and
2)The characterization of SiF4 + H2 plasmas and the detection of HSiCl and HSiF in the plasmas of SiH2Cl2 and SiH2F2, respectively.
We have fabricated a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using BaCe0.8Y0.2Ox (BCY) proton conductor as the electrolyte. An ≈ 15-μm-thick dense BCY film was prepared on a porous Ni/BCY cermet (i.e., ceramic/metal composite) substrate by a colloidal spray deposition technique. The gas permeable Ni/BCY cermet substrate backed with nickel mesh was used as the anode, and platinum paste backed with platinum mesh served as cathode. The current-voltage characteristics of the BCY-based SOFC were measured in the temperature range 600-800°C using wet air on the cathode side and wet hydrogen on the anode side. The open circuit voltage was close to the theoretical value at all operating temperatures. The power density of the fuel cell was ≈240 and ≈875 mW/cm2 at 600 and 800°C, respectively.
Mixed-conducting oxides, possessing both ionic and electronic charge carriers, have found wide application in recent years in solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high temperatures, e.g., solid-oxide fuel cells, batteries, and sensors. These materials also hold promise as dense ceramic membranes that separate gases such as oxygen and hydrogen from mixed-gas streams. We are developing Sr-Fe-Co oxide (SFC) as a membrane that selectively transports oxygen during partial oxidation of methane to syngas (mixture of CO and H2) because of SFC's high combined electronic and ionic conductivities. We have evaluated extruded tubes of SFC for conversion of methane to syngas in a reactor that was operated at ≈900°C. Methane conversion efficiencies were >90%, and some of the reactor tubes were operated for >1000 h. We are also developing dense proton-conducting oxides to separate pure hydrogen from product streams that are generated during methane reforming and coal gasification. Hydrogen selectivity in these membranes is nearly 100%, because they are free of interconnected porosity. Although most studies of hydrogen separation membranes have focused on proton-conducting oxides by themselves, we have developed cermet (i.e., ceramic-metal composite) membranes in which metal powder is mixed with these oxides in order to increase their hydrogen permeability. Using several feed gas mixtures, we measured the nongalvanic hydrogen permeation rate, or flux, for the cermet membranes in the temperature range of 500-900°C. This rate varied linearly with the inverse of membrane thickness. The highest rate, ≈32 cm3(STP)/min-cm2, was measured at 900°C for an ≈15-μm-thick membrane on a porous support structure when 100% H2 at ambient pressure was used as the feed gas.