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The behavior of marine-terminating ice sheets, such as the West Antarctic ice sheet, is of interest due to the possibility of rapid grounding-line retreat and consequent catastrophic loss of ice. Critical to modeling this behavior is a choice of basal rheology, where the most popular approach is to relate the ice-sheet velocity to a power-law function of basal stress. Recent experiments, however, suggest that near-grounding line tills exhibit Coulomb friction behavior. Here we address how Coulomb conditions modify ice-sheet profiles and stability criteria. The basal rheology necessarily transitions to Coulomb friction near the grounding line, due to low effective stresses, leading to changes in ice-sheet properties within a narrow boundary layer. Ice-sheet profiles ‘taper off’ towards a flatter upper surface, compared with the power-law case, and basal stresses vanish at the grounding line, consistent with observations. In the Coulomb case, the grounding-line ice flux also depends more strongly on flotation ice thickness, which implies that ice sheets are more sensitive to climate perturbations. Furthermore, with Coulomb friction, the ice sheet grounds stably in shallower water than with a power-law rheology. This implies that smaller perturbations are required to push the grounding line into regions of negative bed slope, where it would become unstable. These results have important implications for ice-sheet stability in a warming climate.
Recently, compact and high-resolution camera modules with auto-focusing (AF) function have been integrated into cell phones in order to capture sharp photographs. Consumer demands AF camera modules in cell phones to have high performance with low cost. Accordingly, the present study proposes a new electromagnetic design of miniature AF voice coil motor (VCM) actuator with closed-loop control for cell phone camera modules to satisfy the requirements. The structure of the proposed AF VCM actuators was designed by using simulation methods. The performance of the proposed AF VCM actuators was demonstrated by a laboratory-built prototype. The experimental results have shown that the proposed AF VCM actuator has excellent performance with lower power consumption, higher positioning repeatability, and lower cost, when compared to previous AF VCM actuators with open-loop control or closed-loop control.
An uneven neurocognitive profile is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies focusing on the visual memory performance in ASD have shown controversial results. We investigated visual memory and sustained attention in youths with ASD and typically developing (TD) youths.
We recruited 143 pairs of youths with ASD (males 93.7%; mean age 13.1, s.d. 3.5 years) and age- and sex-matched TD youths. The ASD group consisted of 67 youths with autistic disorder (autism) and 76 with Asperger's disorder (AS) based on the DSM-IV criteria. They were assessed using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery involving the visual memory [spatial recognition memory (SRM), delayed matching to sample (DMS), paired associates learning (PAL)] and sustained attention (rapid visual information processing; RVP).
Youths with ASD performed significantly worse than TD youths on most of the tasks; the significance disappeared in the superior intelligence quotient (IQ) subgroup. The response latency on the tasks did not differ between the ASD and TD groups. Age had significant main effects on SRM, DMS, RVP and part of PAL tasks and had an interaction with diagnosis in DMS and RVP performance. There was no significant difference between autism and AS on visual tasks.
Our findings implied that youths with ASD had a wide range of visual memory and sustained attention impairment that was moderated by age and IQ, which supports temporal and frontal lobe dysfunction in ASD. The lack of difference between autism and AS implies that visual memory and sustained attention cannot distinguish these two ASD subtypes, which supports DSM-5 ASD criteria.
Concentration of a diffusing substance in a medium was derived in various cases of uni-dimensional diffusion, including in a semi-infinite medium and a plate-shaped medium. Multi-dimensional diffusion involves boundary conditions in each coordinate direction. The algorithm dealing with uni-dimensional case becomes very complicated in multi-dimensional cases. This study proposes an algorithm, which is called the complementary method, that combines complementary functions of the normalized solution in uni-dimensional diffusion case by multiplication to solve those in various multi-dimensional diffusion cases with dramatically simplified mathematics. Besides, the complementary method is used to solve various kinds of boundary conditions for multi-dimensional diffusion.
We investigated lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns in the cyst fluid of auricular pseudocysts and autogenous blood, to assist the diagnosis of auricular pseudocyst.
Twenty patients with auricular pseudocysts participated in this study conducted in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between February 2007 and June 2010. Patterns of lactate dehydrogenase in cyst fluid and autogenous blood were analysed.
Levels of lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 were lower in auricular pseudocysts than in autogenous blood, whereas levels of lactate dehydrogenase 4 and 5 were higher; this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001).
Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns in auricular pseudocyst fluid indicated higher percentage distributions of lactate dehydrogenase 4 and 5 and lower percentage distributions of lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 2. An effective laboratory method of evaluating the different lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme components was developed; this method may improve the accuracy of auricular pseudocyst diagnosis.
Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). However, little is known about the incidence, recurrence, and severity of CDI in LTCFs or the extent to which acute care exposure contributes to CDI in LTCFs. We describe the epidemiology of CDI in a cohort of LTCF residents in Monroe County, New York, where recent estimates suggest a CDI incidence in hospitals of 9.2 cases per 10,000 patient-days.
Population-based surveillance study.
Monroe County, New York.
LTCF residents with onset of CDI while in the LTCF or less than 4 calendar-days after hospital admission from the LTCF from January 1 through December 31, 2010.
We conducted surveillance for CDI in residents of 33 LTCFs. A CDI case was defined as a stool specimen positive for C. difficile obtained from a patient without a C. difficile-positive specimen in the previous 8 weeks; recurrence was defined as a stool specimen positive for C. difficile obtained between 2 and 8 weeks after the last C. difficile-positive stool specimen.
There were 425 LTCF-onset cases and 184 recurrences, which yielded an incidence of 2.3 cases per 10,000 resident-days (interquartile range [IQR], 1.2–3.3) and a recurrence rate of 1.0 case per 10,000 resident-days (IQR, 0.3–1.4). The cases occurred in 394 LTCF residents, and 52% of these residents developed CDI within 4 weeks after hospital discharge. Hospitalization for CDI occurred in 70 cases (16%). Of those cases that involved hospitalization for CDI, 70% were severe CDI, and 23% ended in death within 30 days after hospital admission.
CDI incidence in Monroe County LTCFs is one-fourth the incidence among hospitalized patients. Approximately 50% of LTCF-onset cases occurred more than 4 weeks after hospital discharge, which emphasizes that prevention of CDI transmission should go beyond acute care settings.
In this study, a novel procedure has been developed for predicting the notched strengths of composite plates each with a center hole. In this approach, the stress distribution of a composite plate with a center hole is first obtained by a finite element analysis, in which the experimental notched strength is applied at the boundary of the finite element model. Secondly, the point stress criterion (PSC) is used to find the characteristic length for each plate with different size of hole by an interpolation of the finite element analysis results. The characteristic length is then expressed as an empirical function of the hole size as well as the width of the plate. Finally, the notched strengths of composite plates are predicted based on the empirical function and the finite element analysis results incorporated with the principle of superposition in elasticity. For validation, three different cases from the literatures are adopted for comparison. It is shown that the predicted notched strengths by this new methodology agree well with both the experimental results and the results from analytical solutions based PSC.
Over the past decade, the PV industry has witnessed tremendous growth in manufacturing scale and technology advancement, with PV generated electricity cost ever approaching grid parity. Among them, Si based thin film technology has made substantial progress in demonstrating its inherent advantages in lower material cost, ease of manufacturing and higher energy yield, etc. More recently, reduced product prices and competing technologies from crystalline silicon and other thin film technologies have made amorphous and microcrystalline silicon based thin film technology very challenging, and requires further increase in module efficiency and decrease in manufacturing cost. As one of the few companies in the world with significant manufacturing capacity for tandem thin film Si PV products, Chint Solar (Astronergy) has been at the forefront of technology development for the mass production of large-scale (Gen. 5, 1.43m2) Si thin film solar modules in the last 5 years. We will review major technology advancements which have been mass production proven and led to the mass produced tandem silicon thin film module with 10.0% plus stabilized efficiency, along with the field performance of those modules.
We report on a direct measurement of electrical potential and field profiles across the n-i-p junction of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells, using the nanometer-resolution potential imaging technique of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). It was observed that the electric field is nonuniform across the i layer. It is much higher in the p/i region than in the middle and the n/i region, illustrating that the i layer is actually slightly n-type. A measurement on a nc-Si:H cell with a higher oxygen impurity concentration shows that the nonuniformity of the electric field is much more pronounced than in samples having a lower O impurity, indicating that O is an electron donor in nc-Si:H materials. This nonuniform distribution of electric field implies a mixture of diffusion and drift of carrier transport in the nc-Si:H solar cells. The composition and structure of these nc-Si:H cells were further investigated by using secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of impurity and structural properties on the electrical potential distribution and solar cell performance are discussed.
In this contribution, we study the increase in metalorganic-low pressure chemical vapor deposited (MO-LPCVD) ZnO thin films conductivity by hydrogen plasma post-treatment. We show that this improvement is linked to defect passivation at grain boundaries, decreasing the electron traps density and resulting in the almost complete suppression of the electron scattering at grain boundaries. For a 2 μm thick non-intentionally doped ZnO layer, electron mobility reaches after treatment values close to 60 cm2V-1s-1 (corresponding to an increase of 100%), with a carrier density still as low as 3 x1019 cm-3 (+1.5 x1019 cm-3). Such layers have an absorbance below 2-3% in the range of 400 to 1100 nm making them among the most transparent and conductive materials reported so far. In addition, we demonstrate that hydrogen plasma post-treated ZnO layers can be used as front electrode for producing highly transparent and conductive electrodes. Eventually, it is shown that hydrogen plasma treatment can also be used on the complete thin film solar cell stack (back contact and silicon device) to improve the cell performances.
A solution based on an advancing model for the content of diffusion material in a cube of medium is derived. The cube is assumed to be surrounded by diffusion material, and the diffusion material penetrates through all six surfaces and diffuses toward the center of the cube. The model accounts for the interaction between the diffusions in the three principle coordinates of the Cartesian coordinate system. For the first time, an exact solution of the content of the diffusion material based on the advancing model is derived in a clean form for a three-dimensional case.
An innovative tri-axes micro-power receiver is proposed and studied for wireless magnetic energy transmission. The tri-axes micro-power receiver mainly consists of two sets of 3D micro-solenoids and one set of planar micro-coils in which individually iron core is all embedded. The three sets of micro-coils/micro-solenoids are designed to be orthogonal to each other. Therefore, no matter which direction the input magnetic flux is present along, the supplied magnetic energy can be harvested and transformed into electric power by the proposed micro-power receiver in wireless sense. Not only dead zone of receiving power is greatly reduced, but also transformation efficiency of magnetic energy into electric power can be much enhanced. By Biot-Savart law and Faraday’s law, the mathematical description upon power transmission from transmitter to receiver is developed. By employing commercial software, Ansoft Maxwell, based on finite element method, the estimation error on power transmission by mathematical description is revealed. Besides, the preliminary simulation results by Ansoft Maxwell show that the proposed micro-power receiver can efficiently harvest the energy supplied by magnetic power source. The design parameters of tri-axes micro-receiver are hence examined and verified for follow-up fabrication. At last, for the MEMS process, the isotropic etching technique is employed to micro-machine the inverse-trapezoid fillister so that the copper wire can be successfully electroplated. The adhesion between micro-coils and fillister is hence much enhanced as well.
Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment.
Amorphous, polycrystalline, and single crystal nanometer dimension particles can be formed in a variety of substrates by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. Such composite colloidal materials exhibit unique optical properties that could be useful in optical devices, switches, and waveguides. However colloids formed by blanket implantation are not uniform in size due to the nonuniform density of the implant, resulting in diminution of the size dependent optical properties. The object of the present work is to form more uniform size particles arranged in a 2-dimensional lattice by using a finely focused ion beam to implant identical ion doses only into nanometer size regions located at each point of a rectangular lattice. Initial work is being done with a 30 keV Ga beam implanted into Si. Results of particle formation as a function of implant conditions as analyzed by Rutherford backscattering, x-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy, and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy will be presented and discussed.
Low-temperature crystallization of a-Si is important for display and Silicon-On- Insulator (SOT) technologies. We present optical characterization (Raman scattering and photoluminescence) of H2 and O2 plasma enhanced crystallization of a-Si:H films. H2 plasma treatment is shown to be the most efficient, leading to larger grain sizes, and both H2 and O2 plasma lead to visible photoluminescence (PL). Recently, the PL of re-crystallized a-Si films has been explained in terms of quantum confinement . The mean size of the crystallites in our re-crystallized films is determined by Raman scattering for different treatments parameters. No correlation between size and the photon energy of the visible emission is found. However, we can clearly distinguish between the PL from purely amorphous and re-crystallized a-Si:H films: Their PL temperature dependence and spectra are very different. The origin of the visible PL in re-crystallized thin Si films is discussed.
The compatibility of both bulk and porous silicon at the subcutaneous site has been assessed for the first time, following ISO standard procedures. The in-vivo responses to implantation were monitored in the guinea pig and histopathological reactions evaluated at 1, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Attention is focused here on the histological assessment protocols used, and the results demonstrating in-vivo evidence for good tissue compatibility, and porous Si bioactivity with regards calcification.
Ion implantation is a versatile technique by which compound semiconductor nanocrystals may be synthesized in a wide variety of host materials. The component elements that form the compound of interest are implanted sequentially into the host, and nanocrystalline precipitates then form during thermal annealing. Using this technique, we have synthesized compound semiconductor nanocrystal precipitates of ZnS, CdS, PbS, and CdSe in a fused silica matrix. The resulting microstructures and size distributions were investigated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. Several unusual microstructures were observed, including a band of relatively large nanocrystals at the end of the implant profile for ZnS and CdSe, polycrystalline agglomerates of a new phase such as γ-Zn 2SiO4, and the formation of central voids inside CdS nanocrystals. While each of these microstructures is of fundamental interest, such structures are generally not desirable for potential device applications for which a uniform, monodispersed array of nanocrystals is required. Methods were investigated by which these unusual microstructures could be eliminated.
New possibilities for modifying the phonon spectra of III-V compounds are evidenced by micro-Raman analysis of porous layers prepared by electrochemical anodization of (111 )Aoriented n-GaP substrates. In particular, a surface-related vibrational mode along with a porosity-induced decoupling between the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon and plasmon are observed. We prove that filling in the pores with other materials (aniline as a first approach) is a promising tool for controlling the surface phonon frequency.
The use of nanoparticle precursors for electronic materials including sulfides, selenides, oxides and the elements has potentially wide ranging implications for improving device properties and substantially reducing the deposition costs. To realize this goal the complex interfacial chemistry of these small particles must be controlled. In this paper we present a number of cases demonstrating the complexity of this chemistry. These include CuInSe2 where the kinetics of phase formation dominate the sintering process; CdTe where sintering proceeds with and without the sintering enhancement of CdCl2, but produces materials different electronically than bulk materials; and the use of compound and elemental nanoparticles ( Ag, Al, Hg-Cu-Te and Sb-Te) for contacts to elemental and compound semiconductors (Si and CdTe).