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Dietary quality (DQ), as assessed by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy (AHEI-P), and conception and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated.
In this prospective cohort study on couples planning their first pregnancy. Cox proportional hazards regression assessed the relationship between AHEI-P score and clinical pregnancy, live birth and pregnancy loss.
Participants were recruited from the Northeast region of the USA.
Participants: Healthy, nulliparous couples (females, n 132; males, n 131; one male did not enrol).
There were eighty clinical pregnancies, of which sixty-nine resulted in live births and eleven were pregnancy losses. Mean (sd) female AHEI-P was 71·0 (13·7). Of those who achieved pregnancy, those in the highest tertile of AHEI-P had the greatest proportion of clinical pregnancies; however, this association was not statistically significant (P = 0·41). When the time it took to conceive was considered, females with the highest AHEI-P scores were 20 % and 14 % more likely to achieve clinical pregnancy (model 1: hazard ratio (HR) = 1·20; 95 % CI 0·66, 2·17) and live birth (model 1: HR = 1·14; 95 % CI 0·59, 2·20), respectively. Likelihood of achieving clinical pregnancy and live birth increased when the fully adjusted model, including male AHEI-P score, was examined (clinical pregnancy model 4: HR = 1·55; 95 % CI 0·71, 3·39; live birth model 4: HR = 1·36; 95 % CI 0·59, 3·13).
The present study is the first to examine AHEI-P score and achievement of clinical pregnancy. DQ was not significantly related to pregnancy outcomes, even after adjustments for covariates.
The equations for the hydrodynamic force and torque acting on a sphere in unsteady Stokes equations under different flow conditions are solved analytically by means of the singularity method. This analytical technique is based on the combination of suitable singularity solutions (also called fundamental solutions) such as primary Stokeslets, potential dipoles, or higher-order singularities, to construct the flow field. The different flows considered here include four examples: (1) a rotating sphere in a viscous flow, (2) a stationary sphere in a time-dependent shear flow, (3) a sphere with free rotation in a simple shear flow, as well as (4) a stationary sphere in a time-dependent axisymmetric parabolic flow. Our paradigm is to derive the fundamental solutions in unsteady Stokes flows and to express the solutions as a convolution integral in time using the time–space fundamental solutions. Next the Laplace transform is used to determine the strength of the distributed singularities that induce the velocity field around a stationary or rotating sphere. Then we use the computed strength of the singularities to derive hydrodynamic force and torque. In particular, for the problem of a stationary sphere in unsteady axisymmetric parabolic flow, our solution for the time-dependent force acting on the sphere consists of five force components – the well-known quasi-steady Stokes drag, the added mass term, the Basset historic (memory) force, and two additional memory forces. The first additional memory force due to the rate change of velocity, we find, is similar to the result obtained by Lawrence & Weinbaum (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 171, 1986, pp. 209–218) for the ostensibly unrelated setting of a slightly deformed translating spheroid. The second additional memory force comes from the effect of the rate change of acceleration and is found for the first time in this study to the best of our knowledge.
To assess the level of all-hazards disaster preparedness and training needs of emergency department (ED) doctors and nurses in Hong Kong from their perspective, and identify factors associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
This study was a cross-sectional territory-wide online survey conducted from 9 September to 26 October, 2015.
The participants were doctors from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Medicine and nurses from the Hong Kong College of Emergency Nursing.
We assessed various components of all-hazards preparedness using a 25-item questionnaire. Backward logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with perceived preparedness.
A total of 107 responses were analyzed. Respondents lacked training in disaster management, emergency communication, psychological first aid, public health interventions, disaster law and ethics, media handling, and humanitarian response in an overseas setting. High perceived workplace preparedness, length of practice, and willingness to respond were associated with high perceived personal preparedness.
Given the current gaps in and needs for increased disaster preparedness training, ED doctors and nurses in Hong Kong may benefit from the development of core-competency-based training targeting the under-trained areas, measures to improve staff confidence in their workplaces, and efforts to remove barriers to staff willingness to respond. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018; 12: 329–336)
A new methodology via using an adaptive fuzzy algorithm to obtain solutions of “Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations” (2-D NSE) is presented in this investigation. The design objective is to find two fuzzy solutions to satisfy precisely the 2-D NSE frequently encountered in practical applications. In this study, a rough fuzzy solution is formulated with adjustable parameters firstly, and then, a set of adaptive laws for optimally tuning the free parameters in the consequent parts of the proposed fuzzy solutions are derived from minimizing an error cost function which is the square summation of approximation errors of boundary conditions, continuum equation and Navier-Stokes equations. In addition, elegant approximated error bounds between the exact solution and the proposed fuzzy solution with respect to the number of fuzzy rules and solution errors have also been proven. Furthermore, the error equations in mesh points can be proven to converge to zero for the 2-D NSE with two sufficient conditions.
In this paper, two formulations in explicit form to derive the fundamental solutions for two and three dimensional unsteady unbounded Stokes flows due to a mass source and a point force are presented, based on the vector calculus method and also the Hörmander’s method. The mathematical derivation process for the fundamental solutions is detailed. The steady fundamental solutions of Stokes equations can be obtained from the unsteady fundamental solutions by the integral process. As an application, we adopt fundamental solutions: an unsteady Stokeslet and an unsteady potential dipole to validate a simple case that a sphere translates in Stokes or low-Reynolds-number flow by using the singularity method instead by the traditional method which in general limits to the assumption of oscillating flow. It is concluded that this study is able to extend the unsteady Stokes flow theory to more general transient motions by making use of the fundamental solutions of the linearly unsteady Stokes equations.