We examined for the presence of trypanosomes in blood samples from 259 anurans (47 species from 8 families), the majority of which were from the Brazilian Amazonia, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes. Trypanosomes were detected by a combination of microhaematocrit and haemoculture methods in 45% of the anurans, and 87 cultures were obtained: 44 from Hylidae, 22 from Leptodactylidae, 15 from Bufonidae, 5 from Leiuperidae and 1 from an unidentified anuran. High morphological diversity (11 morphotypes) was observed among blood trypanosomes from anurans of different species and of the same species as well as among trypanosomes from the same individual. Conversely, morphologically similar trypanosomes were found in anurans from distinct species and biomes. ITS and SSU rDNA polymorphisms revealed high diversity among the 82 isolates examined.† Twenty-nine genotypes could be distinguished, the majority distributed in 11 groups. Phylogenetic relationships based on rDNA sequences indicated that isolates from more phylogenetically related anurans are more closely related. Comparison of anuran trypanosomes from Brazil and other countries revealed several new species among the isolates examined in this study. Phylogenetic relationships suggest that host restriction, host switching and overall ecogeographical structure may have played a role in the evolution of the anuran trypanosomes.