To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Escherichia coli O157 are zoonotic bacteria for which cattle are an important reservoir. Prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 in British cattle for human consumption are over 10 years old. A new baseline is needed to inform current human health risk. The British E. coli O157 in Cattle Study (BECS) ran between September 2014 and November 2015 on 270 farms across Scotland and England & Wales. This is the first study to be conducted contemporaneously across Great Britain, thus enabling comparison between Scotland and England & Wales. Herd-level prevalence estimates for E. coli O157 did not differ significantly for Scotland (0·236, 95% CI 0·166–0·325) and England & Wales (0·213, 95% CI 0·156–0·283) (P = 0·65). The majority of isolates were verocytotoxin positive. A higher proportion of samples from Scotland were in the super-shedder category, though there was no difference between the surveys in the likelihood of a positive farm having at least one super-shedder sample. E. coli O157 continues to be common in British beef cattle, reaffirming public health policy that contact with cattle and their environments is a potential infection source.
Population-based registries report 95% 5-year survival for children undergoing surgery for CHD. This study investigated paediatric cardiac surgical outcomes in the Australian indigenous population.
All children who underwent cardiac surgery between May, 2008 and August, 2014 were studied. Demographic information including socio-economic status, diagnoses and co-morbidities, and treatment and outcome data were collected at time of surgery and at last follow-up.
A total of 1528 children with a mean age 3.4±4.6 years were studied. Among them, 123 (8.1%) children were identified as indigenous, and 52.7% (62) of indigenous patients were in the lowest third of the socio-economic index compared with 28.2% (456) of non-indigenous patients (p⩽0.001). The indigenous sample had a significantly higher Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score (indigenous 9.4±4.2 versus non-indigenous 8.7±3.9, p=0.04). The probability of having long-term follow-up did not differ between groups (indigenous 93.8% versus non-indigenous 95.6%, p=0.17). No difference was noted in 30-day mortality (indigenous 3.2% versus non-indigenous 1.4%, p=0.13). The 6-year survival for the entire cohort was 95.9%. The Cox survival analysis demonstrated higher 6-year mortality in the indigenous group – indigenous 8.1% versus non-indigenous 5.0%; hazard ratio (HR)=2.1; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.1, 4.2; p=0.03. Freedom from surgical re-intervention was 79%, and was not significantly associated with the indigenous status (HR=1.4; 95% CI: 0.9, 1.9; p=0.11). When long-term survival was adjusted for the Comprehensive Aristotle Complexity score, no difference in outcomes between the populations was demonstrated (HR=1.6; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.2; p=0.19).
The indigenous population experienced higher late mortality. This apparent relationship is explained by increased patient complexity, which may reflect negative social and environmental factors.
De novo interictal psychosis, albeit uncommon, can develop in patients following temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. Pathological alterations of the dentate gyrus, including cytoarchitectural changes, immaturity and axonal reorganization that occur in epilepsy, may also underpin co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to study candidate pathways that may be associated with the development of interictal psychosis post-operatively in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS).
A total of 11 patients with HS who developed interictal psychosis (HS-P) post-operatively were compared with a matched surgical HS group without psychosis (HS-NP). Resected tissues were investigated for the extent of granule cell dispersion, mossy fibre sprouting and calbindin expression in the granule cells. We quantified doublecortin, mini-chromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and reelin-expressing neuronal populations in the dentate gyrus as well as the distribution of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CBR1).
The patterns of neuronal loss and gliosis were similar in both groups. HS-P patients demonstrated less mossy fibre sprouting and granule cell dispersion (p < 0.01) and more frequent reduction in calbindin expression in granule cells. There were no group differences in the densities of immature MCM2, doublecortin and reelin-positive cells. CBR1 labelling was significantly lower in Cornu ammonis area CA4 relative to other subfields (p < 0.01); although reduced staining in all hippocampal regions was noted in HS-P compared with HS-NP patients, the differences were not statistically significant.
The alterations in dentate gyrus pathology found in HS-P patients could indicate underlying differences in the cellular response to seizures. These mechanisms may predispose to the development of psychosis in epilepsy and warrant further investigation.
The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.
The effects of surrounding gaseous environment on the reaction behaviors and product formation for sputter-deposited Ti/2B reactive multilayers are reported. With the surrounding environment set to different air pressures, from atmospheric conditions to 10-4 Torr, Ti/2B samples were reacted in a self-propagating mode, and the average reaction wave velocities were determined through high-speed imaging. Propagation speeds for 3.0 μm-thick multilayers were in the range of 10.89 to 0.05 m/s depending on bilayer thickness (i.e., reactant layer periodicity) and ambient pressure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that single-phase TiB2 forms within multilayers that have small bilayer thickness. Multilayers that have a large bilayer thickness developed a mixture of TiB2, TiB and TiO2.
Platonic education is forced to extend its purview to appetite and spirit. In the Republic, this part of education is discussed first, in Books 2 and 3. This chapter focuses on Platonic education's primary target and on the perplexing contrast Socrates draws between reorienting it and curing its blindness. Self-styled educators, who claim to be able to put knowledge into souls like sight into blind eyes stand revealed as people who think that the soul does not need an eye, a divine or god-like element, in order to acquire knowledge. Even if the soul were blind, so that it couldn't see the good itself were the two face to face, it could still, by learning everything else the philosopher learns, acquire knowledge. Countenancing the good, however, is a precondition of countenancing any forms.
A chloramphenicol-resistant mutation in Escherichia coli K 12, cmlA1 (previously designated 1a), giving a higher Cm-resistance than other mutations yet examined, has been shown to have a chromosomal location, the gene order being gal, λ, bio, cmlA, pyrD. CmlA can be transduced efficiently into cm-sensitive strains by P1 with little phenotypic lag, and is co-transduced with the λ-attachment site (frequency 1·13%) but not with gal or pyrD.
Certain practical applications of YBCO coated conductors (CC) involve superconducting tapes wound in coils. In such a configuration the superconducting tape is arranged as closely packed turns, leading to an increase of the magnetic field generated by the current in the tapes and, consequently, a significant increase in the AC losses, with respect to an ‘isolated’ tape. In order to predict and reduce the refrigeration requirements of applications, it is therefore very important to be able to quantify the magnitude of such AC losses, both experimentally and by means of numerical calculations.
YBa2Cu3O7-x (Y123) superconducting thin films can maintain high critical current densities in applied magnetic fields up to a few Tesla at 77 K. Even so, this does not preclude the intentional addition of alternate flux pinning centers in the Y123 films to further optimize their in-field Jc. Unfortunately, many methods to incorporate flux pinning centers into Y123 thin films introduce additional steps and/or re-optimization of the deposition parameters for a given addition. Identifying potential additions that can optimize the performance of YBCO films without changing the deposition conditions would be ideal. The work presented here is an extension of earlier work and demonstrates new dopants and possibilities for introducing pinning centers by the route of minute doping or nanodoping. Preliminary results of a study to determine if minute doping can be performed with smaller lanthanide atoms (Tm, Lu), non-lanthanide atoms (Sc) and Ba-site substitution (Sr) are presented. All samples were deposited under identical conditions as pure YBCO. The new dopants will be discussed in addition to those previously presented (Tb, Pr, Ce, Nd, and La). Critical current density data will be presented for 65 K and 77 K in fields up to 9T in addition to new structural data obtained by cross-sectional TEM.
We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ∼ 930°C due to partial melting and chemical contamination for Ag and Ni substrates respectively. Increasing the sintering duration does not improve significantly the densification. When Ar sintering atmosphere is used, the coating density is strongly increased on Ag substrates while adhesion is poor on Ni substrates. The Ar-sintered YBCO coating deposited on planar Ag substrate displays a significant magnetic shielding effect for low frequency applied magnetic induction.
Metal organic deposition (MOD) is one of the attractive processes for coated conductor applications because it is a non-vacuum cost-effective process. Many research groups have successfully fabricated high-JC YBCO coated conductor on the RABiTS and IBAD-YSZ or GZO template with the MOD process. Reports on MOD-processed YBCO coated conductors prepared on the IBAD-MgO template, however, are hardly found. The precursor solution was coated on the CeO2 capped IBAD-MgO template using the slot-die coating method, calcined at a temperature of 550oC, and fired at high temperatures for 2 h 30 min in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Optimal processing resulted in YBCO coated conductors exhibiting JC value of 0.75 MA/cm2 at 77 K in self-field. The JC values of YBCO coated conductors were found very sensitive to their microstructure, critical temperature, and in-plane texture.
Coated conductor samples, prepared by reactive co-evaporation, are investigated with respect to the hole-doping dependence of the critical current density. The samples are annealed in an atmosphere of variable oxygen content after which critical currents, critical temperature and the c-axis lattice spacing are measured. The lattice spacing increases with decreasing oxygen content, consistent with literature data. These co-evaporated samples show hole overdoped behavior with respect to the maximum Tc. The achievable range of hole doping in these samples seems to depend on surface coverage. Both self-field and in-field Jc at 75.5 K have a maximum in the overdoped region but at less than maximum oxygen content. The reason for the overdoping of these samples is discussed briefly in terms of Y-Ba disorder.
We present a new reel-to-reel method for growth of high temperature super-conducting (HTS) films by reactive co-evaporation on flexible metal tapes. We have demonstrated proof of principle for this method with a small laboratory-scale setup using 8 cm long tape pieces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ is deposited on ion-beam assisted deposition textured MgO layers on top of flexible polycrystalline metal tapes. Critical current densities at 75.5 K of over 2 MA/cm2 have been achieved in HTS films with over 2 μm in thickness, yielding a self field critical current of 450 A/cm-width. A 4.5 μm thick film had a self field critical current of 590 A/cm. We discuss some practical possibilities for manufacturing of superconducting wire using this process and present new areas of research that are still needed.
We present a time-resolved magneto-optical imaging study of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors in alternating current regime. The evolution of the magnetic flux density distribution in the superconducting samples is imaged at small steps of the phase of the applied AC current. The flux penetration during the phase evolution is inhomogeneous due to the grain structure of the coated conductor. A quantitative analysis of the images show how grain boundary network affects the overall behavior of the flux and current density evolution.
We examine the influence of various substrate preparation procedures for ion-beam assist deposition (IBAD) texturing of MgO. IBAD-MgO nano-texturing is very sensitive to the nucleation surface, and surface roughness has an important influence on the texture of the MgO layer. We studied Hastelloy C-276 metal alloy as the substrate. The untreated substrate is leveled by either electropolishing, mechanical polishing or solution deposition. All three methods are applied to continuously moving tapes in long lengths. The RMS surface roughness decreases from 20-50 nm for the untreated substrate to 0.5 nm, 0.3 nm and 1 nm respectively. The in-plane and out-of plane crystalline alignment of the MgO layer improves as the roughness is decreased below 2 nm.