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Background: Tuberculosis is an airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Intracranial tuberculoma is a rare complication of extrapulmonary tuberculosis due to hematogenous spread to subpial and subependymal regions. Intracranial tuberculoma can occur with or without meningitis. Methods: A 3-year-old male who recently emigrated from Sudan presented to the emergency department with right-sided seizures lasting 30 minutes which were aborted with levetiracetam and midazolam. CT head revealed a multilobulated left supratentorial mass, with solid and cystic components measuring 8.0 x 4.8 x 6.5 cm. The patient had successful surgical resection of the mass which was positive for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. He was started on rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and fluoroquinolone and discharged home in stable condition. Results: Literature review on pediatric intracranial tuberculoma was performed which included 48 studies (n=49). The mean age was 8.8 ± 5.4 years with slight female predilection (59%). Predominant solitary tuberculomas (63%) were preferentially managed with both surgical resection and antitubercular therapy (ATT) compared to multifocal tuberculomas that were preferentially managed with ATT. Conclusions: Intracranial tuberculoma is a rare but treatable cause of space-occupying lesions in children. Clinicians should maintain high-level of suspicion in patients from endemic regions and involve infectious disease service early in patient’s care.
Racial differences in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) outcomes have been reported. In this study, minoritized patients with CDIs had prolonged hospitalizations and increased intensive care unit admissions. Chronic kidney disease was shown to partially mediate the relationship between race or ethnicity and severe CDI. Our findings suggest potential areas for equitable interventions.
Racially and ethnically minoritized (REM) patients are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases, including candidemia. REM patients with candidemia were significantly younger, with trends toward more risk factors for candidemia and longer lengths of stay. Although Candida parapsilosis was more common in REM patients, there were no differences in mortality rates.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Recent in vitro evidence suggests that diverse parasite protein families called RIFINs and STEVORs are displayed on the surface of infected red blood cells and may have a role in severe malaria, but they remain sparsely studied in natural infections. We measured the RNA expression of these antigens in Malian children with severe or mild malaria illness. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We collected blood samples from Malian children aged six months to five years, including 14 with cerebral malaria, 10 with severe malarial anemia, and demographic-matched controls with mild, uncomplicated malaria. We extracted total RNA from each patient and used a custom capture array to selectively enrich Plasmodium falciparum parasite RNA. We then performed Illumina next-generation RNA sequencing and reconstructed parasite transcriptomes using reference-free de novo assembly. We identified RNA encoding RIFINs and STEVORs using an in-house classifier, then measured the diversity and abundance of gene expression for each infection. Expression diversity was defined as the number of unique variants transcribed. Expression abundance was calculated as transcripts per million (TPM). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Cerebral malaria cases, but not severe malarial anemia cases, had higher diversity and abundance of RIFIN expression compared to mild infections. Type A RIFINs predominated over Type B RIFINs, and the same two RIFINs were predominantly expressed in all disease phenotypes. We anticipate that predominantly expressed RIFINs share high sequence homology with variants previously shown to bind blood antigens or immune inhibitory receptors. STEVOR expression was also higher in cerebral malaria compared to mild malaria, but STEVOR transcripts were sparse overall. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Elevated RIFIN expression in cerebral malaria over mild malaria supports a role for these antigens in pathogenesis. Severe malarial anemia may progress through a different pathogenic mechanism. Predominantly expressed RIFIN variants may be promising targets for vaccines and therapeutics to protect children against cerebral malaria.
This study aimed to compare the pre- and post-operative vestibular and equilibrium functions of patients with cholesteatoma-induced labyrinthine fistulas who underwent different management methods.
Data from 49 patients with cholesteatoma-induced labyrinthine fistulas who underwent one of three surgical procedures were retrospectively analysed. The three management options were fistula repair, obliteration and canal occlusion.
Patients underwent fistula repair (n = 8), canal occlusion (n = 18) or obliteration procedures (n = 23). Patients in the fistula repair and canal occlusion groups suffered from post-operative vertigo and imbalance, which persisted for longer than in those in the obliteration group. Despite receiving different management strategies, all patients achieved complete recovery of equilibrium functions through persistent efforts in rehabilitation exercises.
Complete removal of the cholesteatoma matrix overlying the fistula is reliable for preventing iatrogenic hearing deterioration due to unremitting labyrinthitis. Thus, among the three fistula treatments, obliteration is the optimal method for preserving post-operative vestibular functions.
This article is the second within a three-part series on Fourier ptychography, which is a computational microscopy technique for high-resolution, large field-of-view imaging. While the first article laid out the basics of Fourier ptychography, this second part sheds light on its algorithmic ingredients. We present a non-technical discussion of phase retrieval, which allows for the synthesis of high-resolution images from a sequence of low-resolution raw data. Fourier ptychographic phase retrieval can be carried out on standard, widefield microscopy platforms with the simple addition of a low-cost LED array, thus offering a convenient alternative to other phase-sensitive techniques that require more elaborate hardware such as differential interference contrast and digital holography.
Glutamatergic dysfunction has been implicated in sensory integration deficits in schizophrenia, yet how glutamatergic function contributes to behavioural impairments and neural activities of sensory integration remains unknown.
Fifty schizophrenia patients and 43 healthy controls completed behavioural assessments for sensory integration and underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for measuring the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) glutamate levels. The correlation between glutamate levels and behavioural sensory integration deficits was examined in each group. A subsample of 20 pairs of patients and controls further completed an audiovisual sensory integration functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) activation and task-dependent functional connectivity (FC) were assessed based on fMRI data. Full factorial analyses were performed to examine the Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on fMRI measurements (group differences in correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements) and the correlation between glutamate levels and fMRI measurements within each group.
We found that schizophrenia patients exhibited impaired sensory integration which was positively correlated with ACC glutamate levels. Multimodal analyses showed significantly Group-by-Glutamate Level interaction effects on BOLD activation as well as task-dependent FC in a ‘cortico-subcortical-cortical’ network (including medial frontal gyrus, precuneus, ACC, middle cingulate gyrus, thalamus and caudate) with positive correlations in patients and negative in controls.
Our findings indicate that ACC glutamate influences neural activities in a large-scale network during sensory integration, but the effects have opposite directionality between schizophrenia patients and healthy people. This implicates the crucial role of glutamatergic system in sensory integration processing in schizophrenia.
Fourier ptychography is an emerging computational microscopy technique that can generate gigapixel-scale images of biological samples. With only the addition of a low-cost LED array to a standard digital microscope and a reconstruction algorithm, Fourier ptychography overcomes the fundamental trade-off between a microscope's resolution and field-of-view without any moving parts. This article is the first in a three-part series that aims to introduce the fundamentals of the technology to the broader microscopy community and beyond, using intuitive explanations.
Acritarch biostratigraphic and δ13C chemostratigraphic data from the Krol A Formation in the Solan area (Lesser Himalaya, northern India) are integrated to aid inter-basinal correlation of early–middle Ediacaran strata. We identified a prominent negative δ13C excursion (likely equivalent to EN2 in the lower Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Gorges area of South China), over a dozen species of acanthomorphs (including two new species—Cavaspina tiwariae Xiao n. sp., Dictyotidium grazhdankinii Xiao n. sp.), and numerous other microfossils from an interval in the Krol A Formation. Most microfossil taxa from the Krol A and the underlying Infra-Krol formations are also present in the Doushantuo Formation. Infra-Krol acanthomorphs support a correlation with the earliest Doushantuo biozone: the Appendisphaera grandis-Weissiella grandistella-Tianzhushania spinosa Assemblage Zone. Krol A microfossils indicate a correlation with the second or (more likely, when δ13C data are considered) the third biozone in the lower Doushantuo Formation (i.e., the Tanarium tuberosum-Schizofusa zangwenlongii or Tanarium conoideum-Cavaspina basiconica Assemblage Zone). The association of acanthomorphs with EN2 in the Krol Formation fills a critical gap in South China where chert nodules, and thus acanthomorphs, are rare in the EN2 interval. Like many other Ediacaran acanthomorphs assemblages, Krol A and Doushantuo acanthomorphs are distributed in low paleolatitudes, and they may represent a distinct paleobiogeographic province in east Gondwana. The Indian data affirm the stratigraphic significance of acanthomorphs and δ13C, clarify key issues of lower Ediacaran bio- and chemostratigraphic correlation, and strengthen the basis for the study of Ediacaran eukaryote evolution and paleobiogeography.
A Glyptagnostus reticulatus (Angelin, 1851)–bearing trilobite assemblage has been found from an unnamed Cambrian formation in the Northern Qilian Mountains area, of which geographical placement in the Cambrian is contested. Glyptagnostus reticulatus is a biostratigraphic indicator of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage, and three agnostoid and six polymerid taxa from the Changgou section, Daliang area are described herein, along with conspecific forms from the nearby Chuancigou section. This well-preserved assemblage shows strong taxonomic affinity with northwestern Queensland, Australia, and western Hunan–eastern Guizhou, China, and likely comes from deep outer-shelf to slope setting associated with the Northern Qilian arc. It is consistent with other arguments that during the Cambrian, the Northern Qilian arc, along with the Hexi Corridor of the Alxa terrane, were more closely allied to South China than to North China.
To investigate the downstream rim seal gas ingestion characteristics of a 1.5-stage turbine, the URANS equations were solved numerically using the SST turbulence model. The effects of different purge flow rates and the second vane on the ingestion characteristics of the aft cavity and the nonuniform fluctuations of the main gas path pressure are analysed. The results showed that the aft cavity is affected by the combined effects of the blade and the second vane, and the potential field at the leading edge of the second vane greatly influence the airflow variation in the aft cavity, which enhances the ingress of the mainstream into the wheel-space. The front purge flow weakens the egress between the suction side of the blade and the suction side of the second vane. The potential field at the leading edge of the second vane suppresses the nonuniform distribution of airflow in the aft cavity caused by the rotational effect of the blade.
Background: Phase 3 COMET trial (NCT02782741) compares avalglucosidase alfa (n=51) with alglucosidase alfa (n=49) in treatment-naïve LOPD. Methods: Primary objective: determine avalglucosidase alfa effect on respiratory muscle function. Secondary/other objectives include: avalglucosidase alfa effect on functional endurance, inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength, lower/upper extremity muscle strength, motor function, health-related quality of life, safety. Results: At Week 49, change (LSmean±SE) from baseline in upright forced vital capacity %predicted was greater with avalglucosidase alfa (2.89%±0.88%) versus alglucosidase alfa (0.46%±0.93%)(absolute difference+2.43%). The primary objective, achieving statistical non-inferiority (p=0.0074), was met. Superiority testing was borderline significant (p=0.0626). Week 49 change from baseline in 6-minute walk test was 30.01-meters greater for avalglucosidase alfa (32.21±9.93m) versus alglucosidase alfa (2.19±10.40m). Positive results for avalglucosidase alfa were seen for all secondary/other efficacy endpoints. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) occurred in 86.3% of avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 91.8% of alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. Five participants withdrew, 4 for AEs, all on alglucosidase alfa. Serious AEs occurred in 8 avalglucosidase alfa-treated and 12 alglucosidase alfa-treated participants. IgG antidrug antibody responses were similar in both. High titers and neutralizing antibodies were more common for alglucosidase alfa. Conclusions: Results demonstrate improvements in clinically meaningful outcome measures and a more favorable safety profile with avalglucosidase alfa versus alglucosidase alfa. Funding: Sanofi Genzyme
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
To examine whether usual beverage intake was associated with sleep timing, duration and fragmentation among adolescents.
Usual beverage intake was assessed with a FFQ. Outcomes included sleep duration, midpoint (median of bed and wake times) and fragmentation, assessed with 7-d actigraphy. Sex-stratified linear regression was conducted with sleep characteristics as separate outcomes and quantiles of energy-adjusted beverage intake as exposures, accounting for age, maternal education, physical activity and smoking.
528 adolescents residing in Mexico City enrolled in a longitudinal cohort.
The mean age (sd) was 14·4 (2·1) years; 48 % were male. Among males, milk and water consumption were associated with longer weekday sleep duration (25 (95 % CI 1, 48) and 26 (95 % CI 4, 47) more minutes, in the 4th compared to the 1st quartile); and higher 100 % fruit juice consumption was related to earlier weekday sleep timing (−22 (95 % CI −28, 1) minutes in the 1st compared to the last quantile; P = 0·03). Among females, soda was associated with higher sleep fragmentation (1·6 (95 % CI 0·4, 2·8) % in the 4th compared to the 1st), and coffee/tea consumption was related to shorter weekend sleep duration (−23 (95 % CI −44, 2) minutes in the 4th compared to the 1st).
Among females, adverse associations with sleep were observed for caffeinated drinks, while males with higher consumption of healthier beverage options (water, milk and 100 % juice) had evidence of longer and earlier-timed sleep. Potential mechanisms involving melatonin and tryptophan should be further investigated.
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders.
We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific.
We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001).
Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.
Anticipatory pleasure deficits are closely correlated with negative symptoms in schizophrenia, and may be found in both clinical and subclinical populations along the psychosis continuum. Prospection, which is an important component of anticipatory pleasure, is impaired in individuals with social anhedonia (SocAnh). In this study, we examined the neural correlates of envisioning positive future events in individuals with SocAnh.
Forty-nine individuals with SocAnh and 33 matched controls were recruited to undergo functional MRI scanning, during which they were instructed to simulate positive or neutral future episodes according to cue words. Two stages of prospection were distinguished: construction and elaboration.
Reduced activation at the caudate and the precuneus when prospecting positive (v. neutral) future events was observed in individuals with SocAnh. Furthermore, compared with controls, increased functional connectivity between the caudate and the inferior occipital gyrus during positive (v. neutral) prospection was found in individuals with SocAnh. Both groups exhibited a similar pattern of brain activation for the construction v. elaboration contrast, regardless of the emotional context.
Our results provide further evidence on the neural mechanism of anticipatory pleasure deficits in subclinical individuals with SocAnh and suggest that altered cortico-striatal circuit may play a role in anticipatory pleasure deficits in these individuals.