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Two austenitic stainless steels of strongly different stacking fault energies (SFEs) and correspondingly different stabilities of the austenite phase were studied with respect to their very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior. The metastable austenitic stainless steel 304L shows a very pronounced transient behavior and a fatigue limit in the VHCF regime. The higher SFE of the 316L steel results in a less pronounced transient cyclic deformation behavior. The plastic shear is more localized, and the formation of deep intrusions leads to microcrack initiation. However, the propagation of such microcracks is impeded by α′-martensite formed very localized within the shear bands. A comprehensive description of the microstructural changes governing the cyclic deformation including the transient resonant behavior was developed and transferred into a mechanism-based model. Simulation results were correlated with the observed deformation evolution and the change of the resonant behavior of specimens during VHCF loading providing a profound understanding of the VHCF-specific deformation behavior.
Perception is solitary. After all, it is the individual alone who feels, hears, tastes, smells and sees. Yet, while the phenomenology of engaging with the world through our senses is restricted to subjective sensations, those sensations are often experienced in a social context. Do social forces change how an individual interacts with the environment and responds to incoming information? We present and discuss a recently discovered phenomenon: people’s eye movements and focus of attention change with their belief that they are looking at objects alone or together with somebody else. Research on ‘joint perception’ provides evidence for the pervasive effect of social context, influencing psychological processes from cognition to low-level perception.
In order to ensure the quality of the source catalogue derived from the SASS processing an automatic as well as a visual screening procedure was applied to 1378 survey fields. Most (94%) of the 18,811 sources were confirmed by this screening process. The rest is flagged for various reasons. Broad band images are available for a subset of the flagged sources. Details of the screening process can be found at www.rosat.mpe-garching.mpg.de/survey/rass-bsc/doc.html.
This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin against Trypanosoma evansi. In vitro efficacy of free curcumin (CURC) and curcumin-loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNCs) was evaluated to verify their lethal effect on T. evansi. To perform the in vivo tests, T. evansi-infected animals were treated with CURC (10 and 100 mg kg−1, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and C-LNCs (10 mg kg−1, i.p.) during 6 days, with the results showing that these treatments significantly attenuated the parasitaemia. Infected untreated rats showed protein peroxidation and an increase of nitrites/nitrates, whereas animals treated with curcumin showed a reduction on these variables. As a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) differs between groups (P<0·05). Infected animals and treated with CURC exhibited a reduction in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine, when compared with the positive control group. The use of curcumin in vitro resulted in a better parasitaemia control, an antioxidant activity and a protective effect on liver and kidney functions of T. evansi-infected adult male Wistar rats.
Antidepressants reduce depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease, but they may be associated with increased mortality. This study aimed to examine whether the use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is associated with mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, and to determine whether this association is mediated by autonomic function.
A total of 956 patients with coronary heart disease were followed for a mean duration of 7.2 years. Autonomic function was assessed as heart rate variability, and plasma and 24-h urinary norepinephrine.
Of 956 patients, 44 (4.6%) used TCA, 89 (9.3%) used SSRI, and 823 (86.1%) did not use antidepressants. At baseline, TCA users exhibited lower heart rate variability and higher norepinephrine levels compared with SSRI users and antidepressant non-users. At the end of the observational period, 52.3% of the TCA users had died compared with 38.2% in the SSRI group and 37.3% in the control group. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for TCA use compared with non-use was 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–2.69, p = 0.01]. Further adjustment for measures of autonomic function reduced the association between TCA use and mortality (HR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.67–2.43, p = 0.47). SSRI use was not associated with mortality (HR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.81–1.64, p = 0.44).
The use of TCA was associated with increased mortality. This association was at least partially mediated by differences in autonomic function. Our findings suggest that TCA should be avoided in patients with coronary heart disease.
This study aimed to develop and test the in vitro and in vivo effectiveness of diminazene aceturate encapsulated into liposomes (L-DMZ) on Trypanosoma evansi. To validate the in vitro tests with L-DMZ, the efficacy of a commercial formulation of diminazene aceturate (C-DMZ) was also assessed. The tests were carried out in culture medium for T. evansi, at concentrations of 0·25, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 μg mL−1 of L-DMZ and C-DMZ. A dose-dependent effect was observed for both formulations (L-DMZ and C-DMZ), with the highest dose-dependent mortality of trypomastigotes being observed at 1 and 3 h after the onset of tests with L-DMZ. The results of in vivo tests showed the same effects in the animals treated with L-DMZ and C-DMZ in single doses of 3·5 mg kg−1 and for 5 consecutive days (3·5 mg kg−1 day−1). It was possible to conclude that T. evansi showed greater in vitro susceptibility to L-DMZ when compared with C-DMZ. In vivo tests suggest that treatment with the L-DMZ and C-DMZ showed similar efficacy in vivo. The potential of the formulation developed in this study was clearly demonstrated, as it increased the efficacy of the treatment against trypanosomosis, but more studies are needed to increase the effectiveness in vivo.
This systematic review described the criteria and main evaluations methods procedures used to classify neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) patients. Also, within the evaluations methods, this review aimed to identify the main contributions of neuropsychological measurements in neuroimaging studies. A search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and SCOPUS databases with the terms related to neuropsychiatric syndromes, systemic lupus erythematosus, and neuroimaging techniques. Sixty-six abstracts were found; only 20 were completely analyzed and included. Results indicated that the 1999 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria is the most used to classify NPSLE samples together with laboratorial, cognitive, neurological and psychiatric assessment procedures. However, the recommended ACR assessment procedures to classify NPSLE patients are being used incompletely, especially the neuropsychological batteries. Neuropsychological instruments and neuroimaging techniques have been used mostly to characterize NPSLE samples, instead of contributing to their classifications. The most described syndromes in neuroimaging studies have been seizure/cerebrovascular disease followed by cognitive dysfunctions as well as headache disorder.
The proton bunch-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) has been proposed as an approach to accelerate an electron beam to the TeV energy regime in a single plasma section. An experimental program has been recently proposed to demonstrate the capability of proton-driven PWFA by using existing proton beams from the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator complex. At present, a spare Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) tunnel, having a length of 600 m, could be used for this purpose. The layout of the experiment is introduced. Particle-in-cell simulation results based on realistic SPS beam parameters are presented. Simulations show that working in a self-modulation regime, the wakefield driven by an SPS beam can accelerate an externally injected ~10 MeV electrons to ~2 GeV in a 10-m plasma, with a plasma density of 7 × 1014 cm−3.
While health warnings are present on cigarette packs around the world, the nature of the warnings varies considerably between countries. In the United States, a small text warning citing the dangers of cigarette smoking is found on the side of all packs. This pilot study sought to determine whether graphic cigarette warning images, like those found in the United Kingdom and Canada, were better at decreasing cravings to smoke than existing text warnings found on cigarette packs in the United States. Twenty-five smokers seeking treatment to quit at a specialty tobacco treatment program were administered the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU — BRIEF), a validated measure of craving, prior to and following exposure to cigarette pack warning images. The graphic cigarette warning images reduced cravings to smoke (6.20 point decrease) more than neutral images (3.36 point decrease) and current text warnings used in the United States (5.75 point decrease), although this difference was not statistically significant. Based on these pilot data, a larger study could further examine the effectiveness of graphic warning images and whether such warnings hold an advantage over the currently used text warnings.
This paper describes a three-step process regime for the integration of porous SiCOH based ultra low-k materials in existing copper damascene technologies. During the work with these complex and sensitive materials, it became more and more clear, that a successful patterning depends not only on the etch step but also on the adjustment between the etch and the following cleaning and k-restore processes. The presented process regime starts with a reactive ion etch process for trench patterning followed by a post etch clean to remove etch residues. Finally a k-restore process was performed to repair the damaged regions in the trench sidewalls. In this work it became clear, that the etch chemistry influences not only the results of the etch process ostensibly sidewall damage but also kind and effect of the post etch clean. Each plasma composition results in the necessity of a customized post etch cleaning solution. Finally a k-restore process using Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as restore chemical was demonstrated successfully. Enhanced temperatures and an additional UV-treatment are possibilities to promote the restore effect.
Increasing demands on production processes in terms of performance, reliability and environmental compatibility shape the specification profile for modem wear resistant coating systems. The specification of PVD coated cutting tools by the parameters hardness, wear and frictional behavior, chemical structure or chemical resistance are already known and inspected by small scale tests, e.g. pin on disc or taber abraser test. Hitherto the thermophysical properties of thin film PVD coatings were not characterized completely although the investigation of the thermal diffusivity of coated substrates give information about the thermal barrier function of the deposited coating.
To determine the thermophysical properties of PVD coatings the Jenoptik Thermal Wave Inspection (TWIN) can be used. This nondestructive and contactless measuring system is based on the photothermal spectroscopy. In this paper fundamentals of the TWIN measuring technique are presented as well as first TWIN results of investigated MSIP TiN and TiAlN coated and oxidized high speed steels.
Surfaces with artificial roughness were generated by deposition of nanoparticles on single crystalline substrates. Nanoparticles with an average size ≈ 15 nm were produced by inert gas condensation and deposited in situ on the substrate mounted inside a modified ultra high vacuum (UHV) transmission electron microscope (TEM). We have investigated the smoothing behavior on annealing based on the difference in surface energies between cluster and substrate and their heat of mixing. The cluster substrate combination Co/Cu(100) was chosen as a model system in which the cluster has a significantly higher surface energy than the substrate. Upon deposition at 600 K, the clusters do not remain on the surface, but rather burrow into the substrate. This is confirmed by a detailed strain analysis of the particles. Nanoparticles in the system Ge/Si(100) in contrast have a lower surface energy than the substrate and are completely miscible. The particles assume the substrate orientation around 700 K. At 900 K coherent islands form which are arranged in clusters of 4 in the form of a square. The reason for this previously unobserved pattern is not yet understood.
The electrical properties of epitaxial ZnO thin films grown on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition were investigated by temperature dependent Hall measurents. The thin films investigated were grown at different oxygen partial pressures ranging from 10-2 mbar to 1 mbar. The formation of a degenerate layer, determining the low temperature Hall data, depends on the oxygen partial pressure applied during growth. Further, the formation of such a layer can be correlated to the grain size of the samples. The thermal activation energy of dominant donors decreases in tendency with increasing oxygen partial pressure p(O2); it is about 100 meV for p(O2) ≤ 3 × 10-2 mbar and about 30 meV for p(O2) ≥ 0.1 mar. The concentration of donors and compensating acceptors increases with increasing p(O2).
MgxZn1-xO/ZnO/MgxZn1-xO quantum wells (QWs) (0.12 ≤ x ≤ 0.15) have been grown on a-plane sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The nominal ZnO well layer thickness lies between 1.2 nm and 6 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations at ZnO/MgxZn1−xO heterostructures show the film-like structure of the ZnO layers. Their root mean square surface roughness of ∼ 0.5 nm gives information about the interface roughness in the QWs. AFM results from the MgxZn1−xO barrier layers show the same surface structure and roughness. We confirmed the lateral homogeneity of the Mg distribution in the MgxZn1−xO barrier layers by scanning cathodoluminescence measurements. The QWs show a bright and laterally homogeneous luminescence, suggesting good crystalline quality of the ZnO wells. The measured QW photoluminescence energies agree well with calculated values and display the presence of the quantum-confined Stark effect. As a result of quantum confinement a high-energy shift of the ZnO excitonic photoluminescence of 222 meV is observed in the thinnest QW.
White OLED consisting of a fluorescent blue emissive layer combined with a phosphorescent green and a phosphorescent red emissive layer were processed by means of Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD). Different concepts to tune the color coordinates of the device are discussed with respect to the luminous efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of device aging on the emitted spectrum is being investigated by means of spectrally resolved lifetime measurements.