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To evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a 152-item semi-quantitative FFQ (SFFQ) for estimating flavonoid intakes.
Over a 1-year period, participants completed two SFFQ and two weighed 7-d dietary records (7DDR). Flavonoid intakes from the SFFQ were estimated separately using Harvard (SFFQHarvard) and Phenol-Explorer (SFFQPE) food composition databases. 7DDR flavonoid intakes were derived using the Phenol-Explorer database (7DDRPE). Validity was assessed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients deattenuated for random measurement error (rs), and reproducibility was assessed using rank intraclass correlation coefficients.
This validation study included primarily participants from two large observational cohort studies.
Six hundred forty-one men and 724 women.
When compared with two 7DDRPE, the validity of total flavonoid intake assessed by SFFQPE was high for both men and women (rs = 0·77 and rs = 0·74, respectively). The rs for flavonoid subclasses ranged from 0·47 for flavones to 0·78 for anthocyanins in men and from 0·46 for flavonols to 0·77 for anthocyanins in women. We observed similarly moderate (0·4–0·7) to high (≥0·7) validity when using SFFQHarvard estimates, except for flavonesHarvard (rs = 0·25 for men and rs = 0·19 for women). The SFFQ demonstrated high reproducibility for total flavonoid and flavonoid subclass intake estimates when using either food composition database. The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0·69 (flavonolsPE) to 0·80 (proanthocyanidinsPE) in men and from 0·67 (flavonolsPE) to 0·77 (flavan-3-ol monomersHarvard) in women.
SFFQ-derived intakes of total flavonoids and flavonoid subclasses (except for flavones) are valid and reproducible for both men and women.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Utilize polymer-based fiber scaffolds and machine learning methods applied to patient biomarker data to enhance and personalize T cell expansion and production for T cell therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Scaffolds are 1) generated from a co-polymer blend of PDMS and PCL with controlled fiber diameters and pore size, 2) coated with activating antibodies to CD3 and CD28, and 3) used to stimulate T cells from both healthy donors and CLL patients. CLL patients have pre-annotated mutation burdens and clinical biomarkers. T cell populations will be analyzed for exhaustion markers and phenotypes before, during, and after expansion. Cell functionality will be measured by cytokine secretion, cell cycle analysis, and fold expansion, with respect to platform parameters, and analyzed with inputs of disease markers and exhaustion profile of isolated T cells using regression and random forest classifiers. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We previously showed that engineering the mechanical rigidity of activating substrates can enhance and rescue T cell expansion from exhausted populations. Now we aim to study a broader range of compositions and geometry of scaffolds with respect to capacity to expand CLL T cells. Preliminary data with fiber diameters ranging from 300 nm to 6 um confirm the effect of geometry in modulating expansion. A biorepository of T cells from 80 CLL patients have been isolated concurrently. Anticipated results include correlating exhaustion profile of T cells with clinical biomarkers and identifying markers associated with expansion on panel of platform parameters. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: T cell therapy has shown particular promise in treating blood cancers, yet significant percentage of T cells isolated from patients undergoing treatments are unresponsive to activation. A powerful tool is to predict if and how patient T cells can be robustly expanded on a personalized approach.
Accurate elemental quantification of materials by X-ray detection techniques in electron microscopes or microprobes can only be carried out if the appropriate mass absorption coefficients (MACs) are known. With continuous advancements in experimental techniques, databases of MACs must be expanded in order to account for new detection limits. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (SXES) is a characterization technique that can detect emitted X-rays whose energies are in the range of 10 eV to 2 keV by using a varied-line-spaced grating. Transitions producing soft X-rays can be detected and accurate MACs are required for use in quantification. This work uses Monte Carlo modeling coupled with multivoltage SXES measurements in an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) to compute MACs for the L2,3-M and Li Kα transitions in a variety of aluminum alloys. Electron depth distribution curves obtained by the software MC X-ray are used in a parametrized fitting equation. The MACs are calculated using a least-squares regression analysis. It is shown that X-ray distribution cross-sections at such low energies need to take into account additional contributions, such as Coster–Kronig transitions, Auger yields, and wave function effects in order to be accurate.
Increasing evidence supports that 5HTTLPR polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene(5HTTLPR) might associate to bipolar disorder and affective temperaments as measured by TEMPS-A. But the results are discrepant, furthermore, there are no data from Chinese population.
The present study was designed to investigate association between 5HTTLPR and bipolar disorder and affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in the specific Chinese population and add new evidence to the field.
There hundred and five patients with bipolar disorder and 272 normal controls were included in the present case-control study⌧Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego -autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in Chinese was used to assess affective temperament. Chi-square test, T test, Nonparametric test and ANOVA were employed to explore association between 5HTTLPR polymorphism and bipolar disorder and affective temperament of patients with bipolar disorder.
5-HTTLPR L/S polymorphism was associated with bipolar disorder in female (genotype χ2 = 6.769⌧P = 0.034⌧allele χ2 = 6.028⌧P = 0.014) and the S allele was associated with anxious temperament (t = 8.248⌧P = 0.005) in patients with bipolar disorder. the LA allele of 5-HTTLPR rs25531 A/G polymorphism was associated with hyperthymic temperament in patients with bipolar disorder (Z = −2.205⌧P = 0.027).
5-HTTLPR might have an effect on the prevalence of bipolar disorder in female and regulate affective temperaments of patients with bipolar disorder in some degree in Chinese population.
Bioinformatic investigations indicate that has-mir-206 (microRNA-206, miRNA-206) could regulate BDNF protein synthesis by interfering with BDNF mRNA translation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder (BPD).
This study is to investigate whether miRNA-206 gene variants were associated with BPD susceptibility in a Han Chinese population.
342 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder type I (BPD-I) or type II (BPD-II) and 386 matched health controls were enrolled into this study. the miRNA-206 gene and +/-500bp were selected for gene sequencing. for the case-control genetic comparisons, differences in the genotype and allele distributions between patients and controls were examined using Pearson's χ2 test.
Gene sequencing showed that there are two polymorphisms rs16882131(C/T) and rs62408583 (A/C) located at the upstream of miRNA-206 gene, which are complete linkage disequilibrium. the association analysis showed that there was no significant difference for genotype frequencies (χ2 = 2.075, df = 2, P = 0.354) or for allele frequencies (χ2 = 0.041, df = 1, P = 0.839) between BPD patients and controls. Similarly, no significant difference was found between BPD-I patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 1.411, df = 2, P = 0.494; allele χ2 = 0.380, df = 1, P = 0.538). However, there was significant difference between BPD-II patients and controls (genotype χ2 = 7.933, df = 2, P = 0.019; allele χ2 = 5.403, df = 1, P = 0.020).
Our findings do not support that BPD susceptibility was associated with miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms in the studied Han Chinese population. the association between miRNA-206 gene polymorphisms and bipolar disorder type II is needed to be carefully interpreted. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the involvement miRNA-206 in the pathophysiology of BPD.
To explore the difference in the clinical features between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression from the clinical phenomenology.
Two hundred bipolar patients with their current depressive episode and five hundred and sixty three recurrent depression were involved in the study. Clinical features of these two groups were compared and stepwise Logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between clinical features and bipolar disorder.
Clinical features of depressive episode which was different between two groups and were associated with bipolar disorder were as follows: age at onset of bipolar was earlier than that of unipolar depression; Bipolar patients whose age at onset before 25 years were more than unipolar depression; Sexual appetites which was one of atypical depressive symptoms were more common in bipolar depression than in unipolar depression; with psychiatric symptoms, psychomotor retardation, mood instability and duration of every depressive episode < 3 months, were more common in bipolar depression group than in unipolar depression group; Cognitive impairment factor, one of factors of HAMD-17 score, was significantly higher in bipolar depression group than in unipolar depression group. The odd ratio were 1.54, 1.50, 3.25, 1.99, 1.89, 1.48, 1.63, 1.63, and 1.42 separately.
The founding suggested that unipolar depression and bipolar depression might be distinct disorder, and age at onset, age at onset < 25, sexual appetites, psychiatric symptoms, psychomotor retardation, mood instability and duration of every depressive episode < 3 months might be potential to be the predictors of bipolar disorder.
To explore the factors associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder with their first depressive episode.
One hundred and seventy seven bipolar patients were enrolled in this retrospective study. One hundred fifty four patients were included in non-occurrence of suicidal risk group, while twenty three were included in occurrence of suicidal risk group. To compare the demographic and clinic features between these two groups. Stepwise Logistic regression model was used to identify the associated factors. Concordance statistics (i.e. the area under the ROC curve) was used to compute the discrimination of the associated factors, and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic was used to measure the goodness-of-fit.
Clinical features associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder were as follows: psychotic symptom and symptom of irritability. The odd ratio was 6.23 and 4.04 separately.
This study demonstrated indicated that psychotic symptom and symptom of irritability were associated with occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder, and it suggested that these two symptoms might be potential to be the predictors of occurrence of suicidal risk after treatment of SSRI in bipolar disorder.
The present study compared the expression profile and made the classification with the leukocytes by using whole-genome cRNA microarrays among patients with SSD, major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls.
Gene expression profiling was conducted in peripheral blood leucocytes from drug-free first-episode subjects with SSD, MDD, and matched controls (8 subjects in each group) using global mRNA expression arrays. Support vector machines (SVMs) were utilized for training and testing on candidate signature expression profiles from signature selection step.
We identified SSD and MDD gene signatures from blood-based gene expression profile and build a SSD- MDD disorder model with higher predictive power. Firstly, we identified 63 differentially expressed SSD signatures in contrast to control (P <= 5.0E-4) and 30 differentially expressed MDD signatures in contrast to control, respectively. Then, 123 gene signatures were identified with significantly differential expression level between SSD and MDD. Secondly, in order to conduct priority selection for biomarkers for SSD and MDD together, we selected top gene signatures from each group of pair-wise comparison results, and merged the signatures together to generate better profiles used for clearly classify SSD and MDD sets in the same time. In details, we tried different combination of signatures from the three pair-wise compartmental results and finally determined 48 gene expression signatures with 100% accuracy.
Blood cell-derived RNA may have significant value for performing diagnostic functions and identifying disease biomarkers in SSD and MDD. These 48 gene model could classify SSD, MDD, and healthy controls.
To study the relationship between insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R)and subsyndromal symptomatic depression (SSD).
In this case-control study, real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) with TaqMan MGB was used to analyzing the differences of IGF1R gene mRNA expression in peripheral leukocytes between subsyndromal symptomatic depression group(n = 47) and healthy controls(n = 52). At the same time Hamilton Depression Rating Scale -17(HAMD17) were assessed.
IGF1R gene mRNA expression was 0.21 ± 0.11 in SSD group, 0.56 ± 0.37 in healthy group, and there was significant difference between both groups on IGF1R expression(z = 39.54, P < 0.001). the expression levels of IGF1R in SSD patients was not correlated with Hamilton score(r = −0.292, p = 0.275).
This study suggested that the decreased expression of IGF1R were related with the pathophysiology of SSD.
The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear.
Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function.
We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease × COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system).
Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD.
Psychomotor retardation (PMR) in depression is analogous to the hypokinesia in Parkinson's disease, which is associated with the unbalanced direct and indirect pathways of cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (CBTC) circuitry. This study hypothesized PMR in major depressive disorder (MDD) should be associated with the hyperactivity of CBTC indirect pathways.
To substantiate the hypothesis that the PMR symptom of MDD might attribute to the hyperactivity of the ortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical indirect pathway which could inhibit psychomotor performance.
We investigated the intrinsic stiato-subthalamic nucleus (STN)-thalamic functional connectivity (FC), three pivotal hubs of the indirect pathway, in 30 MDD patients with PMR (PMR group) and well matched 30 patients without PMR (NPMR group) at baseline, and 11 patients of each group at follow-up who remitted after antidepressant treatment.
The results showed increased STN-striatum FC of PMR group at baseline and no more discrepancy at follow-up, and significant correlation between PMR severity and thalamo-STN FC.
Our findings suggested the increased STN- striatum FC should be considered as a state biomarker to distinguish MDD patients with PMR from patients without PMR at acute period, and thalamo-STN FC could be identified as the predictor of the PMR severity for MDD patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite was synthesized from Ag-containing sol and g-C3N4 powder by the ultrasonic-assisted self-assembly method. The composite has hierarchical pore size distributions, which will be beneficial to the ion transport with different size. Ag nanoparticles with the size of 5 nm successfully adhere on the surface of g-C3N4. The AgNPs@g-C3N4 composite has excellent specific capacitance and specific power performance for the supercapacitors as an electrode material. The specific capacitance of composite is 4 times greater than that of g-C3N4. It can be ascribed to the introduction of Ag nanoparticles that the internal resistance of the composite is significantly decreased.
Based on a variable-coefficient Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation, the topographic effect on the wave interactions between two oblique internal solitary waves is investigated. In the absence of rotation and background shear, the model set-up featuring idealised shoaling topography and continuous stratification is motivated by the large expanse of continental shelf in the South China Sea. When the bottom is flat, the evolution of an initial wave consisting of two branches of internal solitary waves can be categorised into six patterns depending on the respective amplitudes and the oblique angles measured counterclockwise from the transverse axis. Using theoretical multi-soliton solutions of the constant-coefficient KP equation, we select three observed patterns and examine each of them in detail both analytically and numerically. The effect of shoaling topography leads to a complicated structure of the leading waves and the emergence of two types of trailing wave trains. Further, the case when the along-crest width is short compared with the transverse domain of interest is examined and it is found that although the topographic effect can still modulate the wave field, the spreading effect in the transverse direction is dominant.
This paper summarizes our recent works of studying AGN feedback in an isolated elliptical galaxy by performing high-resolution hydrodynamical numerical simulations. Bondi radius is resolved and the mass accretion rate of the black hole is calculated. The most updated AGN physics, namely the discrimination of cold and hot accretion modes and the exact descriptions of the AGN radiation and wind for a given accretion rate are adopted and their interaction with the gas in the host galaxy is calculated. Physical processes such as star formation and SNe feedback are taken into account. Consistent with observation, we find the AGN spends most of the time in the low-luminosity regime. AGN feedback overall suppresses the star formation; but depending on location in the galaxy and time, it can also enhance it. The light curve of specific star formation rate is not synchronous with the AGN light curve. These results put a serious challenge to the observational test of the relation between AGN activity and star formation. We find that wind usually plays a dominant role in controlling the AGN luminosity and star formation, but radiation also cannot be neglected.
We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
Muons produced by the Bethe–Heitler process from laser wakefield accelerated electrons interacting with high
materials have velocities close to the laser wakefield. It is possible to accelerate those muons with laser wakefield directly. Therefore for the first time we propose an all-optical ‘Generator and Booster’ scheme to accelerate the produced muons by another laser wakefield to supply a prompt, compact, low cost and controllable muon source in laser laboratories. The trapping and acceleration of muons are analyzed by one-dimensional analytic model and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that muons can be trapped in a broad energy range and accelerated to higher energy than that of electrons for longer dephasing length. We further extrapolate the dependence of the maximum acceleration energy of muons with the laser wakefield relativistic factor
and the relevant initial energy
. It is shown that a maximum energy up to 15.2 GeV is promising with
on the existing short pulse laser facilities.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
A study of the propagation of a mode-2 internal solitary wave over a slope-shelf topography is presented. The methodology is based on a variable-coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vKdV) equation, using both analysis and numerical simulations, and simulations using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Two configurations are considered. One is a mode-2 internal solitary wave propagating up the slope, from one three-layer system to another three-layer system. Depending on the height of the shelf, which determines the variation of the nonlinear coefficient of the vKdV equation, this can be classified into two cases. First, the case of a polarity change, in which the coefficient of the quadratic nonlinear term changes sign at a certain critical point on the slope, and second, the case with no such polarity change. In both these cases there is a small transfer of energy from the mode-2 wave to mode-1 waves. The other configuration is when the lower layer in the three-layer system goes to zero at a transition point on the slope, and beyond that point, there is a two-layer fluid system. A mode-2 internal solitary wave propagating up the slope cannot exist past this transition point. Instead it is extinguished and replaced by a mode-1 bore and trailing wave packet which moves onto the shelf.
The SkyMapper Transient survey (SMT) is exploring variability in the southern sky by performing (a) a rolling search to discover and study supernovæ, and (b) a Target of Opportunity programme that uses the robotic SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory. The supernova survey is obtaining a non-targeted sample of Type Ia supernovæ (SNe Ia) at low redshifts, z < 0.1, and studying other interesting transients found with the search strategy. We have a Target of Opportunity programme with an automatic response mechanism to search for optical counterparts to gravitational-wave and fast radio-burst events; it benefits from SkyMapper’s large field of view of 5.7 sq. deg. and a rapid data reduction pipeline.
We present first results of the SMT survey. The SMT pipeline can process and obtain potential candidates within 12 hours of observation. It disentangles real transients from processing artefacts using a machine-learning algorithm. To date, SMT has discovered over 60 spectroscopically confirmed supernovæ, several peculiar objects, and over 40 SNe Ia including one (SNIa 2016hhd) which was found within the first few days of explosion. We have also participated in searches for optical counterparts of gravitational waves, fast radio bursts and other transients, and have published observations of the optical counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817. We also participate in coordinated observations with the Deeper Wider Faster programme, and the Kepler K2 cosmology project.