Interfacial reactions induced by ion beam mixing and furnace annealing in Al/Mo bilayers are investigated. The amount of interfacial ion m'xing, 4Dt, follows a linear dose dependence for irradiation temperatures ≤80 C. Below room temperature, the mixing efficiency, defined as d(4Dt)/dø, is temperature independent, and agrees fairly well with the prediction of the phenomenological model based on chemically biased diffusion in thermal spike. We conclude that thermal spike mixing dominates for Xe irradiation of Al/Mo at low temperatures. The mixing efficiency becomes temperature-dependent above room temperature with an apparent activation enthalpy of about 0.17±0.02eV. A layer of 15–20 at.% Mo forms by ion mixing, while oAl12 Mo forms upon thermal annealing in a nonuniform fashion starting at 500°C. Reaction of Mo with large-grained Al substrates shows the same nonuniform characteristics as in evaporated Al/Mo bilayers, implying a minor role of grain boundary effects. Oxygen gettered in the Mo film could be an important factor that influences the interfacial reaction.