The effects of mycotoxins in the production of animal feed were investigated using broiler chickens. For the feeding trial, naturally Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated wheat was used, which mainly contained deoxynivalenol (DON). The main effects of DON are reduction of the feed intake and reduced weight gain of broilers. At the molecular level, DON binds to the 60 S ribosomal subunit and subsequently inhibits protein synthesis at the translational level. However, little is known about other effects of DON, for example, at the transcriptional level. Therefore, a microarray analysis was performed, which allows the investigation of thousands of transcripts in one experiment. In the experiment, 20 broilers were separated into four groups of five broilers each at day 1 after hatching. The diets consisted of a control diet and three diets with calculated, moderate concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg DON/kg feed, which was attained by exchanging uncontaminated wheat with naturally mycotoxin-contaminated wheat up to the intended DON concentration. The broilers were held at standard conditions for 23 days. Three microarrays were used per group to determine the significant alterations of the gene expression in the liver (P < 0.05), and qPCR was performed on the liver and the jejunum to verify the results. No significant difference in BW, feed intake or feed conversion rate was observed. The nutrient uptake into the hepatic and jejunal cells seemed to be influenced by genes: SLC2A5 (fc: −1.54, DON2.5), which facilitates glucose and fructose transport and SLC7A10 (fc: +1.49, DON5), a transporter of d-serine and other neutral amino acids. In the jejunum, the palmitate transport might be altered by SLC27A4 (fc: −1.87, DON5) and monocarboxylates uptake by SLC16A1 (fc: −1.47, DON5). The alterations of the SLC gene expression may explain the reduced weight gain of broilers chronically exposed to DON-contaminated wheat. The decreased expressions of EIF2AK3 (fc: −1.29, DON2.5/5) and DNAJC3 (fc: −1.44, DON2.5) seem to be related to the translation inhibition. The binding of DON to the 60 S ribosomal subunit and the subsequent translation inhibition might be counterbalanced by the downregulation of EIF2AK3 and DNAJC3. The genes PARP1, MPG, EME1, XPAC, RIF1 and CHAF1B are mainly related to single-strand DNA modifications and showed an increased expression in the group with 5 mg DON/kg feed. The results indicate that significantly altered gene expression was already occurring at 2.5 mg DON/kg feed.