Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Antimicrobial stewardship programs typically use days of therapy to assess antimicrobial use. However, this metric does not account for the antimicrobial spectrum of activity. We applied an antibiotic spectrum index to a population of very-low-birth-weight infants to assess its utility to evaluate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship interventions.
Ice-flow properties within a polar ice sheet are examined using the comprehensive data gathered from ice-core drilling by Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions (ANARE) at Dome Summit South (DSS), on Law Dome, East Antarctica. Using the shear strain rates derived from borehole inclination measurements we demonstrate the need to modify the ice-flow relations to treat enhanced shear deformation deep within the ice sheet. We show that the relation between enhanced flow and the measured crystallographic properties is generally in accord with expectations, at least in the upper parts of the ice sheet, but it becomes clear that nearer to the bedrock the situation is more complicated. We also compare the observed shear strain-rate profile with results from a model that describes flow enhancement as a function of the applied stresses.
We describe the investigation of two temporally coincident illness clusters involving salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus in two states. Cases were defined as gastrointestinal illness following two meal events. Investigators interviewed ill persons. Stool, food and environmental samples underwent pathogen testing. Alabama: Eighty cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 5·8 h. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified from 27 of 28 stool specimens tested, and coagulase-positive S. aureus was isolated from three of 16 ill persons. Environmental investigation indicated that food handling deficiencies occurred. Colorado: Seven cases were identified. Median time from meal to illness was 4·5 h. Five persons were hospitalised, four of whom were admitted to the intensive care unit. Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in six of seven stool specimens and coagulase-positive S. aureus in three of six tested. No single food item was implicated in either outbreak. These two outbreaks were linked to infection with Salmonella Heidelberg, but additional factors, such as dual aetiology that included S. aureus or the dose of salmonella ingested may have contributed to the short incubation periods and high illness severity. The outbreaks underscore the importance of measures to prevent foodborne illness through appropriate washing, handling, preparation and storage of food.
An approach to deriving the thickness of the Antarctic ice sheet and inferring the bedrock elevation to fill in gaps in the compilations of ice-thickness observations is presented. It combines assumptions about the general state of balance of the ice sheet and of the dynamics of ice flow, with information about ice accumulation and the topography of the ice-sheet surface elevation to infer the ice thickness and bedrock. A simplified version of the scheme already shows the potential of this approach, as is demonstrated by an application to the Lambert Glacier basin, East Antarctica.
A model for ice flow in a polar ice sheet is presented. It is based on laboratory measurements of ice rheology, and includes the effect of anisotropic-flow enhancement in tertiary creep as the ice progresses through a range of stress regimes as it passes through the ice sheet. This flow model is applied to the transect from the summit of Law Dome, East Antarctica, to Gape Folger. In the upper layers of the ice sheet good agreement is found between the shear strain-rate profiles from the model and borehole-inclination measurements. Modifications of the simple model predictions for high shear strain rates in the lower layers of the ice cap are required in order to match the observed surface velocities. In these lower regions reductions in both the enhancement of shear flow and shear stress appear to be required, and this suggests that more attention needs to be given to the dynaimcs deep within ice sheets.
The northwestern sector of the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, has a layered structure, due to the presence of both meteoric ice and a marine ice layer resulting from sub-shelf freezing processes. Crystal orientation fabric and grain-size data are presented for ice cores obtained from two boreholes ˜70 km apart on approximately the same flowline. Multiple-maxima crystal orientation fabrics and large mean grain sizes in the meteoric ice are indicative of stress relaxation and subsequent grain growth in ice that has flowed into the Amery Ice Shelf. Strongly anisotropic single-maximum crystal orientation fabrics and rectangular textures near the base of the ˜200 m thick marine ice layer suggest accretion occurs by the accumulation of frazil ice platelets. Crystal orientation fabrics in older marine ice exhibit vertical large circle girdle patterns, influenced by the complex stress configurations that exist towards the margins of the ice shelf. Post-accumulation grain growth and fabric development in the marine ice layer are restricted by a high concentration of brine and insoluble particulate inclusions. Differences in the meteoric and marine ice crystallography are indicative of the contrasting rheological properties of these layers, which must be considered in relation to large-scale ice-shelf dynamics.
Laboratory creep deformation experiments have been conducted on initially isotropic laboratory-made samples of polycrystalline ice. Steady-state tertiary creep rates, , were determined at strains exceeding 10% in either uniaxial-compression or simple-shear experiments. Isotropic minimum strain rates, , determined at ˜1 % strain, provide a reference for comparing the relative magnitude of tertiary creep rates in shear and compression through the use of strain-rate enhancement factors, E, defined as the ratio of corresponding tertiary and isotropic minimum creep rates, i.e. . The magnitude of strain-rate enhancement in simple shear was found to exceed that in uniaxial compression by a constant factor of 2.3. Results of experiments conducted at octahedral shear stresses of to = 0.040.80 MPa indicate a creep power-law stress exponent of n = 3 for isotropic minimum creep rates and n = 3.5 for tertiary creep rates. The difference in stress exponents for minimum and tertiary creep regimes can be interpreted as a t0 stress-dependent level of strain-rate enhancement, i.e. .The implications of these results for deformation in complex multicomponent stress configurations and at stresses below those used in the current experiments are discussed.
We combine European Remote-sensing Satellite (ERS-1) radar altimeter surface elevations (Fricker and others, 2000) with six different accumulation distributions to compute balance fluxes for the Lambert Glacier–Amery Ice Shelf drainage system. These interpolated balance fluxes are compared with fluxes derived from in situ measurements of ice thickness and velocity at 73 stations of the Lambert Glacier basin traverse and at 11 stations further downstream, to assess the system’s state of balance. For the upstream line we obtain a range of imbalance estimates, from −23.8% to +19.9% of the observed flux, reflecting the sensitivity to the accumulation distributions. For some of the accumulation distributions the imbalance estimates vary significantly between different parts of the line. Imbalance estimates for the downstream line range from −17.7% to +70.2%, with four of the estimates exceeding +30%, again reflecting the sensitivity of the result to input accumulation, and strongly suggesting that the mass balance of the region between the two lines is positive. Our results confirm the importance of accurate estimates of accumulation in ice-sheet mass-balance studies. Furthermore, they suggest that it is not possible to accurately determine the state of balance of large Antarctic drainage basins on the basis of currently available accumulation distributions.
We present a new method for extracting the direction of surface flow for ice sheets, based on the detection of flow-induced features that are visible in satellite imagery. The orientation of linear features is determined using a Radon transform and only requires a single image. The technique is demonstrated by applying it to the RADARSAT mosaic of Antarctica, over the Lambert Glacier–Amery Ice Shelf region of East Antarctica. Comparisons with both existing flow-direction fields and traced streamlines over the same area provide an evaluation of the method. We also illustrate its application to Landsat 7 imagery.
Satellite altimetric time series allow high-precision monitoring of ice-sheet mass balance. Understanding elevation changes in these regions is important because outlet glaciers along ice-sheet margins are critical in controlling flow of inland ice. Here we discuss a new airborne altimetry dataset collected as part of the ICECAP (International Collaborative Exploration of the Cryosphere by Airborne Profiling) project over East Antarctica. Using the ALAMO (Airborne Laser Altimeter with Mapping Optics) system of a scanning photon-counting lidar combined with a laser altimeter, we extend the 2003–09 surface elevation record of NASA’s ICESat satellite, by determining cross-track slope and thus independently correcting for ICESat’s cross-track pointing errors. In areas of high slope, cross-track errors result in measured elevation change that combines surface slope and the actual Δz/Δt signal. Slope corrections are particularly important in coastal ice streams, which often exhibit both rapidly changing elevations and high surface slopes. As a test case (assuming that surface slopes do not change significantly) we observe a lack of ice dynamic change at Cook Ice Shelf, while significant thinning occurred at Totten and Denman Glaciers during 2003–09.
Remote sensing of ice motion by tracking displacement of surface features is a valuable tool in glaciology. Efficient image feature-tracking programs, such as IMCORR, based on fast Fourier transform methods can produce misleading correlations if there are data gaps in either or both of the reference and search images. This is particularly problematic if the data gaps are regular in character, such as for Landsat7 images collected after the failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC-off images). We demonstrate that this situation can be alleviated by filling the data gaps with suitably chosen random data. We modified IMCORR to achieve this automatically (source code is included), but generic image-processing software could be used to modify inputs for other correlation packages. We test our method using images of Pine Island Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and document the acceleration of the velocity field for the floating extension of Pine Island Glacier over the decade 2001–11. We also combine our velocities with recent NASA Operation IceBridge ice thickness data from CReSIS to estimate the basal melt rates.
The generalized (Glen) flow relation for ice, involving the second invariants of the stress deviator and strain-rate tensors, is only expected to hold for isotropic polycrystalline ice. Previous single-stress experiments have shown that for the steady-state flow, which develops at large strains, the tertiary strain rate is greater than the minimum (secondary creep) value by an enhancement factor which is larger for shear than compression. Previous experiments combining shear with compression normal to the shear plane have shown that enhancement of the tertiary octahedral strain rate increases monotonically from compression alone to shear alone. Additional experiments and analyses presented here were conducted to further investigate how the separate tertiary shear and compression strain-rate components are related in combined stress situations. It is found that tertiary compression rates are more strongly influenced by the addition of shear than is given by a Glen-type flow relation, whereas shear is less influenced by additional compression. A scalar function formulation of the flow relation is proposed, which fits the tertiary creep data well and is readily adapted to a generalized form that can be extended to other stress configurations and applied in ice mass modelling.
In this study we compare the anisotropic flow relations for polycrystalline ice of Azuma and Goto-Azuma (1996), Thorsteinsson (2002), Placidi and others (2010) and Budd and others (2013). Observations from the Dome Summit South (DSS) ice-coring site at Law Dome, East Antarctica, are used to model the vertical distribution of deviatoric stress components at the borehole site. The flow relations in which the anisotropic rheology is parameterized by a scalar function, so that the strain-rate and deviatoric stress tensor components are collinear, provide simple shear and vertical compression deviatoric stress profiles that are most consistent with laboratory observations of tertiary creep in combined stress configurations. Those flow relations where (1) the anisotropy is derived from the magnitude of applied stresses resolved onto the basal planes of individual grains and (2) the macroscopic deformation is obtained via homogenization of individual grain responses provide stress estimates less consistent with laboratory observations. This is most evident in combined simple shear and vertical compression flow regimes where shear is dominant. Our results highlight the difficulties associated with developing flow relations which incorporate a physically based description of microdeformation processes. In particular, this requires that all relevant microdeformation, recrystallization and recovery processes are adequately parameterized.
Assessment of the effect of the Antarctic ice sheet on sea level requires an accurate determination of its current state of balance. This is usually done by comparing the ice net accumulation for an area with the net outward flow of the ice. To obtain the net outward flux to better than 20% accuracy the relationship between the column-integrated ice flux and measurements of ice-sheet thickness and surface velocity must be considered. That relationship is summarised by the ratio of depth-averaged velocity ϒ to surface velocity γs in areas where ice sliding can be neglected, this ratio strongly reflects the rheological properties of the ice and depends on the shear strain-rate profile through the ice column, which is influenced by profiles of stress, temperature and ice-crystal fabric.
We present calculations from a flowline model of a hypothetical large ice sheet to demonstrate how development of an anisotropic ice-crystal fabric can influence the depth profile of horizontal velocity. The temperature dependence of ice rheology, combined with typical ice-sheet temperature profiles, yields a more block-like velocity profile with increasing to values in the range 0.89-0.96 from the isothermal rheology value of 0.8. Our results show that the onset of enhanced shear flow with increasing shear strain, as a consequence of anisotropy, and then a reduction of enhancement nearer the bedrock, can modify the velocity profile, giving values typically in the range 0.86-0.91. Smaller values than these may also occur for rougher bedrock or thinner ice.
Using a three-dimensional ocean model specially adapted to the ocean cavity under the Amery Ice Shelf, we investigated the present ocean circulation and pattern of ice-shelf basal melting and freezing, the differences which would result from temperature changes in the seas adjacent to the Amery Ice Shelf, and the ramifications of these changes for the mass balance of the ice shelf. Under present conditions we estimate the net loss from the Amery Ice Shelf from excess basal melting over freezing at approximately 7.8 Gt a−1. This comprises a gross loss of 11.4 Gt a−1 at a mean rate of 0.42 m a−1, which is partially offset by freezing-on of 3.6 Gt a−1, at a mean rate of 0.19 m a−1. When the adjacent seas were assumed to warm by 1°C, we found the net melt increased to 31.6 Gt a−1, comprising 34.6 Gt a−1 of gross melt and 3.0 Gt a−1 of freezing.
A simple computer scheme developed by Budd and Smith (1985) and modified by D. Jenssen has been further developed to provide a rapid computation of steady-state balance fluxes over arbitrary ice masses, given the surface elevations and net accumulation distribution. The scheme provides a powerful diagnostic tool to examine the flux and state of balance over whole ice masses or limited regions to interpret field observations for dynamics or the state of balance.
In many cases the uncertainty in the state of balance may be much less than the uncertainty in the deformation and sliding properties of the ice and so the flux and velocities derived from balance could provide a useful guide for the dynamics where direct observations are sparse.
The scheme assumes that, on a horizontal scale of many ice thicknesses, the ice-flow direction is approximately down the steepest surface slope. The continuity equation is used to compute steady-state implied downslope fluxes at each grid point from integrations of the net accumulation over the area from the summits to the edges. The algorithm ensures the exact integral balance of the surface net flux over the area with flow through boundaries.
Applications are demonstrated for the whole of Antarctica and for regional areas. Comparisons are made between fluxes computed from observed ice thicknesses and velocities and those computed from balance. The observed ice thicknesses can also be used to compute surface velocities from assumed column-to-surface velocity ratios. The combined fluxes from observations and balance can be used to compute rates of change of elevation with time.
The primary effects of global warming on the Antarctic ice sheet can involve increases in surface melt for limited areas at lower elevations, increases in net accumulation, and increased basal melting under floating ice. For moderate global wanning, resulting in ocean temperature increases of a few °C, the large- increase in basal melting can become the dominant factor in the long-term response of the ice sheet. The results from ice-sheet modelling show that the increased basal melt rates lead to a reduction of the ice shelves, increased strain rates and flow at the grounding lines, then thinning and floating of the marine ice sheets, with consequential further basal melting.
The mass loss from basal melting is counteracted to some extent by the increased accumulation, but in the long term the area of ice cover decreases, particularly in West Antarctica, and the mass loss can dominate. The ice-sheet ice-shelf model of Budd and others (1994) with 20 km resolution has been modified and used to carry out a number of sensitivity studies of the long-term response of the ice sheet to prescribed amounts of global warming. The changes in the ice sheet are computed out to near-equilibrium, but most of the changes take place with in the first lew thousand years. For a global mean temperature increase of 3°C with an ice-shelf basal melt rate of 5 m a−1 the ice shelves disappear with in the first few hundred years, and the marine-based parts of the ice sheet thin and retreat. By 2000 years the West Antarctic region is reduced to a number of small, isolated ice caps based on the bedrock regions which are near or above sea level. This allows the warmer surface ocean water to circulate through the archipelago in summer, causing a large change to the local climate of the region.
The future behaviour of the Antarctic ice sheet depends to some extent on its current state of balance and its past history. The past history is primarily influenced by global climate changes, with some small amount of local feedback, and by sea-level changes generated primarily by the Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet changes, again with a small amount of feedback from the Antarctic ice sheet. An ice-sheet model which includes ice shelves has been used to model the Antarctic region and the whole Northern Hemisphere high-latitude region through the last ice-age cycle. For the climate forcing, the results from the global energy-balance model of Budd and Rayner (1990) are used. These are based on the Earth's orbital radiation changes with ice-sheet albedo feedback. Additional sensitivity studies are carried out for the amplitudes of the derived temperature changes and for changes in precipitation over the ice-sheets. For the Antarctic snow-accumulation changes, the results from the Voslok ice core are used with proportional changes over the rest of the ice sheet. For the sea-level variations, the results generated by the Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet changes provide the primary forcing, but account is also taken of the feedback effects from bed response under changing ice and ocean loading and from the Antarctic changes.
The results of the modelling provide a wide range of features for comparison with observations, such as the margins of maximum ice extent. For the Northern Hemisphere the results indicate that the peak mean temperature shift required for the ice-edge region is about -12°C, whereas outside the ice-sheet region this change is smaller but over the ice sheets it is larger. For the Antarctic region during the ice age the interior region decreases in thickness, due to lower accumulation, while the grounding-edge region expands and thickens due to the sea-level lowering. As a result, the derived present state of balance shows a positive region over most of inland East Antarctica, whereas coastal regions tend to be nearer to balance, with some slightly negative regions around some of the large ice shelves and coastal ice streams which are still adjusting slowly to the post-ice-age changes of sea level and accumulation rates.