To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The aim of this study was to clarify effects of Clozapine and its metabolites on insulin resection and expression of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) located in cell membrane of isolated rat's islets.
The cells of isolated rat's islets were prepared by a modified collagenase digestion methods. At 5.5 mmol/L glucose, the cells of islets was treated with 1mmol/L clozapine, desmethyl-clozapine(DCLO), clozapine N-oxide(CNO), respectively, blank control group was also set.
1. After incubation 48h, the insulin in supernatant was assayed by radioimmunoassay.
2. The cells of isolated rat's islets in each group were detected GLUT2 mRNA level with RT-PCR and its protein expression with Western-blot.
1. Compared to control group, clozapine significantly inhibited insulin secretion (P=0.007< 0.01); DCLO has a tendency to inhibit insulin secretion after 48h of incubation, but no significant difference was found (P=0.154>0.05). There was no difference of insulin secretion between CNO group and the control group after 48h of incubation (P>0.05).
2. The mRNA and protein expression of GLUT2 located in cell membrane of slets: clozapine group was significantly lower than control group (P=0.017< 0.05, P=0.035< 0.05), DCLO group was also lower than control group, but no significant difference was found (P>0.05), and no significant difference between CNO group and control group (P>0.05).
Clozapine can inhibit GLUT2 expression of cells of islets, and then hamper glucose transport through cell membrane, which was one of mechanisms to explain the effect of clozapine on insulin secretion.
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and the safety of venlafaxine and fluoxetine in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
One hundred and Eight inpatients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the Forth Edition(DSM-IV) for OCD were involved in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into venlafaxine group or fluoxetine group. Efficacy of venlafaxine and fluoxetine in treatment of OCD were assessed with Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity(CGI-S), the side effects were evaluated with Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS).
The therapeutic efficacy in venlafaxine group was similar to that in fluoxetine (70.36%vs68.29%, P>0.05) after eight weeks’ therapy. The improve-rates of Y-BOCS after 2 weeks’ therapy of venlafaxine were significant higher than those of baseline, while the improve-rates of Y-BOCS after 4 weeks’ therapy of fluoxetine were significant higher than those of baseline(P< 0.05). The side effects of venlafaxine group were similar to fluoxetine group (P>0.05).
The results indicate that both venlafaxine and fluoxetine is effective in the treatment of OCD, but venlafaxine work faster than fluoxutine.
The response of soil microbial communities to soil quality changes is a sensitive indicator of soil ecosystem health. The current work investigated soil microbial communities under different fertilization treatments in a 31-year experiment using the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profile method. The experiment consisted of five fertilization treatments: without fertilizer input (CK), chemical fertilizer alone (MF), rice (Oryza sativa L.) straw residue and chemical fertilizer (RF), low manure rate and chemical fertilizer (LOM), and high manure rate and chemical fertilizer (HOM). Soil samples were collected from the plough layer and results indicated that the content of PLFAs were increased in all fertilization treatments compared with the control. The iC15:0 fatty acids increased significantly in MF treatment but decreased in RF, LOM and HOM, while aC15:0 fatty acids increased in these three treatments. Principal component (PC) analysis was conducted to determine factors defining soil microbial community structure using the 21 PLFAs detected in all treatments: the first and second PCs explained 89.8% of the total variance. All unsaturated and cyclopropyl PLFAs except C12:0 and C15:0 were highly weighted on the first PC. The first and second PC also explained 87.1% of the total variance among all fertilization treatments. There was no difference in the first and second PC between RF and HOM treatments. The results indicated that long-term combined application of straw residue or organic manure with chemical fertilizer practices improved soil microbial community structure more than the mineral fertilizer treatment in double-cropped paddy fields in Southern China.
Plant height and lodging resistance can affect rice yield significantly, but these traits have always conflicted in crop cultivation and breeding. The current study aimed to establish a rapid and accurate plant type evaluation mechanism to provide a basis for breeding tall but lodging-resistant super rice varieties. A comprehensive approach integrating plant anatomy and histochemistry was used to investigate variations in flexural strength (a material property, defined as the stress in a material just before it yields in a flexure test) of the rice stem and the lodging index of 15 rice accessions at different growth stages to understand trends in these parameters and the potential factors influencing them. Rice stem anatomical structure was observed and the lignin content the cell wall was determined at different developmental stages. Three rice lodging evaluation models were established using correlation analysis, multivariate regression and artificial radial basis function (RBF) neural network analysis, and the results were compared to identify the most suitable model for predicting optimal rice plant types. Among the three evaluation methods, the mean residual and relative prediction errors were lowest using the RBF network, indicating that it was highly accurate and robust and could be used to establish a mathematical model of the morphological characteristics and lodging resistance of rice to identify optimal varieties.
Large magnetometric surveys have contributed to the detection of an increasing number of magnetic massive stars, and to the recognition of a population of magnetic massive stellar objects with distinct properties. Among these, NGC 1624-2 possesses the largest magnetic field of any O-type star; such a field confines the stellar wind into a circumstellar magnetosphere, which can be probed using observations at different wavelength regimes. Recent optical and X-ray observations suggest that NGC 1624-2’s magnetosphere is much larger than that of any other magnetic O star. By modeling the variations of UV resonance lines, we can constrain its velocity structure. Furthermore, recent spectropolarimetric observations raise the possibility of a more complex field topology than previously expected. Putting all of these multi-wavelength constraints together will allow us to paint a consistent picture of NGC 1624-2 and its surprising behavior, giving us valuable insight into the very nature of massive star magnetospheres.
Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) are a brief phase in the evolution of massive stars, but a very important one. The giant eruptions remain enigmatic, but the discovery of the flagship LBV η Car to be a five-year highly eccentric binary put focus on possible binarity induced mechanism for these outbursts, and prompted binarity searches among LBVs. While several wide LBV binaries were identified, HR Car is the first system found to be similar to η Car, i.e., relatively close & eccentric.
Studies of schizophrenia at drug-naive state and on antipsychotic medication have reported a number of regions of gray-matter (GM) abnormalities but the reports have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to conduct multimodal meta-analysis to compare the cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry studies of brain GM in antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia (AN-FES) and those with antipsychotic treatment within 1 year (AT-FES) to determine the similarities and differences in these groups. We conducted two separate meta-analyses containing 24 studies with a sample size of 801 patients and 957 healthy controls. A multimodal meta-analysis method was used to compare the findings between AN-FES and AT-FES. Meta-regression analyses were done to determine the influence of different variables including age, duration of illness, and positive and negative symptom scores. Finally, jack-knife analyses were done to test the robustness of the results. AN-FES and AT-FES showed common patterns of GM abnormalities in frontal (gyrus rectus), superior temporal, left hippocampal and insular cortex. GM in the left supramarginal gyrus and left middle temporal gyrus were found to be increased in AN-FES but decreased in AT-FES, whereas left median cingulate/paracingulate gyri and right hippocampus GM was decreased in AN-FES but increased in AT-FES. Findings suggest that both AN-FES and AT-FES share frontal, temporal and insular regions as common anatomical regions to be affected indicating these to be the primary regions of GM abnormalities in both groups.
Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China.
Due to their functional similarity to estradiol, phytoestrogens could prove to be beneficial in late gestating sows. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of providing the phytoestrogen genistein during late pregnancy on the performance of sows and their litters. In total, 56 gilts were equally divided into the two following groups on day 90 of gestation: (1) controls (CTL); and (2) two daily i.m. injections of 220 mg of genistein (GEN). Treatments were carried out until farrowing. Jugular blood samples were collected from 16 gilts/treatment on days 89 and 110 of gestation, and on days 3 and 21 of lactation. Milk samples were also obtained from those sows on day 3 of lactation. A male piglet from 16 CTL and 15 GEN litters was slaughtered at 24 h postpartum and a blood sample was obtained. The liver, heart and visceral organs were weighed and the semitendinosus (ST) muscle was collected and carcass composition was determined. The treatment increased (P<0.05) the concentrations of genistein and daidzein in the plasma of gilts on day 110 of gestation and of genistein in the plasma of piglets at 24 h postpartum. It also increased IGF1 concentrations in gilts at the end of the treatment period (P<0.05). Genistein had no impact (P>0.1) on weight or backfat loss of sows during lactation, milk composition or weights of piglets. The pre-weaning mortality rate of piglets was very low (<7%), yet the odds ratio comparing CTL with GEN sows indicated almost twice as many chances of pre-weaning deaths occurring in litters from CTL than GEN sows. Weights of the piglet carcasses were similar for both treatments, as well as weights of the various organs and of the ST muscle (P>0.1). However, carcasses from GEN litters contained more fat than those from CTL litters (9.63% v. 8.34%, P<0.05). None of the biochemical properties of the ST muscle differed between groups (P>0.1). In conclusion, injecting gilts with 440 mg/day of genistein in late gestation increased IGF1 concentrations in gilts and carcass fat in neonatal piglets, but had minimal effect on muscle development of piglets at birth and on the performance of lactating sows and their litters.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria that cause diarrhea in piglets through colonizing pig small intestine epithelial cells by their surface fimbriae. Different fimbriae type of ETEC including F4, F18, K99 and F41 have been isolated from diarrheal pigs. In this study, we performed a genome-wide association study to map the loci associated with the susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 using 39454 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 667 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 cross. The most significant SNP (ALGA0022658, P=5.59×10−13) located at 6.95 Mb on chromosome 4. ALGA0022658 was in high linkage disequilibrium (r2>0.5) with surrounding SNPs that span a 1.21 Mb interval. Within this 1.21 Mb region, we investigated ZFAT as a positional candidate gene. We re-sequenced cDNA of ZFAT in four pigs with different susceptibility phenotypes, and identified seven coding variants. We genotyped these seven variants in 287 unrelated pigs from 15 diverse breeds that were measured with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype. Five variants showed nominal significant association (P<0.05) with ETEC F41 susceptibility phenotype in International commercial pigs. This study provided refined region associated with susceptibility of pigs to ETEC F41 than that reported previously. Further works are needed to uncover the underlying causal mutation(s).
The incidence of recreational water-associated outbreaks in the United States has significantly increased, driven, at least in part, by outbreaks both caused by Cryptosporidium and associated with treated recreational water venues. Because of the parasite's extreme chlorine tolerance, transmission can occur even in well-maintained treated recreational water venues (e.g. pools) and a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak can evolve into a community-wide outbreak associated with multiple recreational water venues and settings (e.g. childcare facilities). In August 2004 in Auglaize County, Ohio, multiple cryptosporidiosis cases were identified and anecdotally linked to pool A. Within 5 days of the first case being reported, pool A was hyperchlorinated to achieve 99·9% Cryptosporidium inactivition. A case-control study was launched to epidemiologically ascertain the outbreak source 11 days later. A total of 150 confirmed and probable cases were identified; the temporal distribution of illness onset was peaked, indicating a point-source exposure. Cryptosporidiosis was significantly associated with swimming in pool A (matched odds ratio 121·7, 95% confidence interval 27·4–∞) but not with another venue or setting. The findings of this investigation suggest that proactive implementation of control measures, when increased Cryptosporidium transmission is detected but before an outbreak source is epidemiologically ascertained, might prevent a focal cryptosporidiosis outbreak from evolving into a community-wide outbreak.
Crop nitrogen (N) status is an important indicator of crop health and predictor of subsequent crop yield. The present study was conducted to analyse the relationships between nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), nitrogen biomass difference (ΔNB) and spectral indices in wheat, and then attempt to improve field N management. Spectral indices and concurrent sample N and biomass parameters were obtained from the Shihezi University experimental site in Xinjiang, China during 2009 and 2010. The results showed that all spectral indices were significantly correlated with NNI. Regression functions with the highest determination coefficient (R2) and the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) were used to improve prediction of NNI, and then the selected spectral index was used to estimate NNI and ΔNB. The strongest relationships were observed for the products of modified normalized difference 705 × biomass dry weight (BND705) and the enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) for estimating NNI. There were also strong relationships between the NNI and the normalized NNI (ΔNNI) as well as between ΔNNI and ΔNB, with a linear relationship between ΔNB and the spectral index BND705 and a linear relationship between ΔNB and the spectral index EVI2. These results indicated that BND705 and EVI2 can be used to improve the accuracy of NNI estimation, and the correlations of ΔNB and NNI with BND705 and EVI2 can be used to further improve field N management in wheat.
In this work, we reported the optical photometry monitoring results for two brightest nearby quasars, PHL 1811 and 3C 273 using the ST-6 camera at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. For PHL 1811, we found 3 microvariability events with time scale of ΔT = 6.0 min. For 3C273, we found that the largest variations are ΔV = 0.369 ± 0.028 mag, ΔR = 0.495 ± 0.076 mag, and ΔI = 0.355 ± 0.009 mag. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to the available data, a period of p = 5.80 ± 1.12 years is obtained for PHL 1811, and p = 21.10 ± 0.14, 10.00 ± 0.14, 7.30 ± 0.09, 13.20 ± 0.09, 2.10 ± 0.06, and 0.68 ± 0.05 years are obtained for 3C 273.
Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well studied BL Lac through the whole electro-magnetic wavebands, it is violently variable in the optical bands. In the present work, we show its optical R band photometric observations carried out during the period of Nov. 2006 to Dec. 2012 using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. It shows a large variation of ΔR = 4.88 mag (14.20 - 19.08 mag) during our monitoring period. When periodicity analysis methods are adopted to its R observations from our Abastumani monitoring programme and those in the literature, the signs of some periods, P1 = 8.26 yr, P2 = 0.55 yr, P3 = 0.85 yr, P4 = 1.99 yr are found.
In this talk, we will show the beaming effect for Fermi/LAT blazars, then we discuss the correlations between γ-ray luminosity and other parameters, such as radio Doppler factors, superluminal motions, and core-dominance parameters. We also compare the Doppler factors determined from the γ-ray luminosity, X-ray emissions, and the short-term time scales with those from other methods. Our discussions suggest that γ-ray emissions may be strongly beamed.
As one of the most typical ancient cultural relics in southern China's minority regions near Changsha in Hunan province, the magnificent Laosicheng ruins excavated recently have been included in the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Tentative List. Urgent conservation of excavated Laosicheng ruins brings about the need for a study of the formulation and properties of construction materials used, including earth, stone, mortar, and brick. In the present study, comprehensive analyses were carried out to determine their raw material compositions, mineralogical, and microstructural properties using sheet polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometer, thermogravimetric/differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Special attention was paid to mortars, which were the most widely used in building the Laosicheng. Results show that mortar used as external render of the city wall is mainly built up from inorganic CaCO3 and MgCO3 based hybrid materials produced by the carbonation of Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2 with a small amount of sticky rice. In contrast, mortar used to bond stones of the city walls is a traditional mortar that does not contain sticky rice. This study is a part of a huge interdisciplinary project aimed to clarify the role of organics in ancient China’s organic-inorganic hybrid mortar, which can be considered as one of the greatest invention in construction material history. The results provide valuable basic data and restoration strategies that can be used in the conservation of the ruins as well.
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is one of the most interesting materials used to consolidate stone sculptures, monuments, mortars or wall paintings. In this study, we reported on the synthesis and characterization of surface modified Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles as a dispersion with enhanced kinetic stability and the applications for the conservation of sandstone monuments. Uniform hexagonal Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (∼35nm) were obtained by mixing NaOH and NaCl aqueous solutions at 100∼175oC using homogeneous-phase reactions. It was further demonstrated that 3-(Methacryloyloxypropane oxygen) trimethoxysilane surfactant agent can significantly reduce agglomeration and simultaneously improve specific surface area of as-synthesized Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement showed that specific surface area of modified Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles reaches up to ∼48.78m2/g, about 2.5 and 3.4 times higher than that of unmodified and commercial ones, respectively. The kinetic stability of Ca(OH)2 despersion can be further enhanced and its viscosity can be decreased by optimizing the ratio of ethanol and n-propanol. Especially, a technique, which combined the Ferroni-Dini method and dispersion of Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles with enhanced kinetic stability, was proposed to effectively desalinate and consolidate the decayed stone, as evidenced by significant decreases of the porosity and concentration of detrimental Cl- and SO42- ions in the severely decayed sandstone samples from the Yungang grottoes.