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Increased mass losses from the Greenland ice sheet and inferred contributions to sea-level rise have heightened the need for hydrologic observations of meltwater exiting the ice sheet. We explore whether temporal variations in ice-sheet surface hydrology can be linked to the development of a downstream sediment plume in Kangerlussuaq Fjord by comparing: (1) plume area and suspended sediment concentration from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery and field data; (2) ice-sheet melt extent from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) passive microwave data; and (3) supraglacial lake drainage events from MODIS. Results confirm that the origin of the sediment plume is meltwater release from the ice sheet. Interannual variations in plume area reflect interannual variations in surface melting. Plumes appear almost immediately with seasonal surface-melt onset, provided the estuary is free of landfast sea ice. A seasonal hysteresis between melt extent and plume area suggests late-season exhaustion in sediment supply. Analysis of plume sensitivity to supraglacial events is less conclusive, with 69% of melt pulses and 38% of lake drainage events triggering an increase in plume area. We conclude that remote sensing of sediment plume behavior offers a novel tool for detecting the presence, timing and interannual variability of meltwater release from the ice sheet.
We present a high precision frequency determination method for digitized NMR FID signals. The method employs high precision numerical integration rather than simple summation as in many other techniques. With no independent knowledge of the other parameters of a NMR FID signal (phase ф, amplitude A, and transverse relaxation time T2) this method can determine the signal frequency f0 with a precision of if the observation time T ≫ T2. The method is especially convenient when the detailed shape of the observed FT NMR spectrum is not well defined. When T2 is +∞ and the signal becomes pure sinusoidal, the precision of the method is which is one order more precise than the ±1 count error induced precision of a typical frequency counter. Analysis of this method shows that the integration reduces the noise by bandwidth narrowing as in a lock-in amplifier, and no extra signal filters are needed. For a pure sinusoidal signal we find from numerical simulations that the noise-induced error in this method reaches the Cramer-Rao Lower Band (CRLB) on frequency determination. For the damped sinusoidal case of most interest, the noise-induced error is found to be within a factor of 2 of CRLB when the measurement time T is 2 or 3 times larger than T2. We discuss possible improvements for the precision of this method.
We examined the spatial distribution pattern and meteorological drivers of dengue fever (DF) in Guangdong Province, China. Annual incidence of DF was calculated for each county between 2005 and 2011 and the geographical distribution pattern of DF was examined using Moran's I statistic and excess risk maps. A time-stratified case-crossover study was used to investigate the short-term relationship between DF and meteorological factors and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). High-epidemic DF areas were restricted to the Pearl River Delta region and the Han River Delta region, Moran's I of DF distribution was significant from 2005 to 2006 and from 2009 to 2011. Daily vapour pressure, mean and minimum temperatures were associated with increased DF risk. Maximum temperature and SOI were negatively associated with DF transmission. The risk of DF was non-randomly distributed in the counties in Guangdong Province. Meteorological factors could be important predictors of DF transmission.
SXP 1062 is an exceptional case of a young neutron star in a wind-fed high-mass X-ray binary associated with a supernova remnant. A unique combination of measured spin period, its derivative, luminosity and young age makes this source a key probe for the physics of accretion and neutron star evolution. Theoretical models proposed to explain the properties of SXP 1062 shall be tested with new data.
We survey HII free-free emission around ∼60 spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) at 3.3 and 5.5 cm. From each YSOs' infrared spectrum, we: a) quantify how embedded/evolved the YSO is through principle component analysis (PCA) of the silicate absorption (Seale et al. 2009); and b) estimate the mass from SED models (Robitaille et al. 2007). We have four main results: (1) Based on mass estimates from SED models and ATCA detection limits, we find that most massive YSOs are in HII regions regardless of age; (2) Older massive YSOs (as indicated by silicate PCA index) are much more likely to be resolved than younger YSOs, indicating evolving HII regions; (3) Resolved (typically older) sources usually have lower densities. Thus, in our survey we see a transition from ultra-compact HII to HII regions; and (4) We find that accretion about the massive YSO is likely non-spherical, resulting in HII regions in the shape of prolate spheroids.
Motivated by recent experimental observations, we consider a steady-state boundary layer flow with polymers in forced convection above a heated plate and study how the heat transport might be affected by the polymers. We discuss how a set of equations can be derived for the problem and how these equations can be solved numerically by an iterative scheme. By carrying out such a scheme, we find that the effect of the polymers is equivalent to producing a space-dependent effective viscosity that first increases from the zero-shear value at the plate then decreases rapidly back to the zero-shear value far from the plate. We further show that such an effective viscosity leads to a decrease in the streamwise velocity near the plate, which in turn leads to a reduction in heat transport.
Previous studies have suggested that Lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) has antioxidant effects and possibly beneficial effects on blood pressure, plasma lipids and glucose, but these have not been confirmed in subjects with mild hypertension or hyperlipidaemia. The objective of the present study was to assess the cardiovascular, metabolic, antioxidant and immunomodulatory responses to therapy with Lingzhi in patients with borderline elevations of blood pressure and/or cholesterol in a controlled cross-over trial. A total of twenty-six patients received 1·44 g Lingzhi daily or matching placebo for 12 weeks in a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study with placebo-controlled run-in and cross-over periods. Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period. Lingzhi was well tolerated and data from twenty-three evaluable subjects showed no changes in BMI or blood pressure when treated with Lingzhi or placebo. Plasma insulin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance were lower after treatment with Lingzhi than after placebo. TAG decreased and HDL-cholesterol increased with Lingzhi but not with placebo in the first treatment period, but significant carry-over effects prevented complete analysis of these parameters. Urine catecholamines and cortisol, plasma antioxidant status and blood lymphocyte subsets showed no significant differences across treatments. Results indicate that Lingzhi might have mild antidiabetic effects and potentially improve the dyslipidaemia of diabetes, as shown previously in some animal studies. Further studies are desirable in patients with hyperglycaemia.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.
We are presently using the Chandra X-ray Observatory to conduct the first systematic X-ray survey of planetary nebulae (PNe) in the solar neighborhood. The Chandra Planetary Nebula Survey (ChanPlaNS) is a 570 ks Chandra Cycle 12 Large Program targeting 21 high-excitation PNe within ~1.5 kpc of Earth. When complete, this survey will provide a suite of new X-ray diagnostics that will inform the study of late stellar evolution, binary star astrophysics, and wind interactions. Among the early results of ChanPlaNS (when combined with archival Chandra data) is a surprisingly high detection rate of relatively hard X-ray emission from CSPNe. Specifically, X-ray point sources are clearly detected in roughly half of the ~30 high-excitation PNe observed thus far by Chandra, and all but one of these X-ray-emitting CSPNe display evidence for a hard (few MK) component in their Chandra spectra. Only the central star of the Dumbbell appears to display “pure” hot blackbody emission from a ~200 kK hot white dwarf photosphere in the X-ray band. Potential explanations for the“excess” hard X-ray emission detected from the other CSPNe include late-type companions (heretofore undetected, in most cases) whose coronae have been rejuvenated by recent interactions with the mass-losing WD progenitor, non-LTE effects in hot white dwarf photospheres, self-shocking variable winds from the central star, and slow (re-)accretion of previously ejected red giant envelope mass.
The cathodic kinetic processes on a highly oriented LSCO thin film electrode supported on YSZ(100) surface were studied with a 3-probe ac impedance method under varying bias potential and annealing temperatures. Three distinctive features observed in the impedance spectra were assigned to contributions from the ionic conduction of the YSZ electrolyte, the ionic transfer at the LSCO/YSZ interface, and the oxygen exchange on the LSCO electrode surface. The changes of the three features with respect to the annealing history and bias potential were measured. The impedance data were analyzed using an equivalent circuit model: (RelCel)(RinterfaceQinterface)(RsurfCsurf).
Magnetotransport properties of Al0.22Ga0.78N/GaN modulation-doped heterostructures have been studied at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. The inter-subband scattering of the two-dimensional electron gas was observed. The inter-subband scattering is very weak and depends weakly on temperature when temperature is between 1.3 K and 10 K and becomes stronger with increasing temperature when temperature is higher than 10 K. The strain relaxation of the Al0.22Ga0.78N layer influences the inter-subband scattering. It is suggested that the inter-subband scattering is dominant by the elastic scattering when temperature is lower than 10 K, and changes to be dominant by the inelastic scattering of the acoustic phonons when temperature is higher than 10 K.
We have studied the kinetics of the chemical reaction between Mg and B by differential thermal analysis. There are two exothermal peaks observed at 500 and 650 °C. We speculate that the first exothermal peak is mainly related to the chemical reaction between Mg and oxygen, forming MgO. The second exothermal peak, which coincides with the melting point of Mg, clearly indicates the chemical reaction between Mg and B. The effect of synthesis conditions and defects on the transport property of MgB2 has been investigated. A correlation between the microstrain, the lattice parameters, and the Mg concentration were observed and are discussed.
The development of a self-aligned fabrication process for small emitter contact area (2×4 um2) GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors and GaN bipolar junction transistors is described. The process features dielectric-spacer sidewalls, low damage dry etching and selected-area regrowth of p-GaAs(C) on the base contact or n-GaN/AlGaN on the emitter contact. Series resistance effects are still found to influence the device performance.
Metal-catalyzed graphitization from vapor phase sources of carbon is now an established technique for producing few-layer graphene, a candidate material of interest for post-silicon electronics. Here we describe two alternative metal-catalyzed graphene formation processes utilizing solid phase sources of carbon. In the first, carbon is introduced as part of a cosputtered Ni-C alloy; in the second, carbon is introduced as one of the layers in an amorphous carbon (a-C)/Ni bilayer stack. We examine the quality and characteristics of the resulting graphene as a function of starting film thicknesses, Ni-C alloy composition or a-C deposition method (physical or chemical vapor deposition), and annealing conditions. We then discuss some of the competing processes playing a role in graphitic carbon formation and review recent evidence showing that the graphitic carbon in the a-C/Ni system initially forms by a metal-induced crystallization mechanism (analogous to what is seen with Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Si) rather than by the dissolution-upon-heating/precipitation-upon-cooling mechanism seen when graphene is grown by metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition methods.
X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility and 119-Sn Mössbauer effect measurements have been performed on Pb2Sr2Eu.5Cu3-xSnx08+z (x = 0.0, 0.1) superconductors. The x-ray diffraction pattern indicated that the samples are single phase materials. The diamagnetic shielding and the Meissner fraction increase with the introduction of Sn in the lattice. The 119-Sn Mössbauer effect measurements have been used to determine the site symmetry and valence state of Sn atom in the superconductor.
The effect of channeling on the diffusion of ion implanted phosphorus in silicon has been investigated. Silicon samples, implanted with 25–100 keV P along the  channeling and the random equivalent directions, were subjected to thermal annealing over a temperature range of 600–1050 °C. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) and Spreading Resistance Probe (SRP) have been used to determine the atomic and carrier concentration depth profiles, respectively. The findings show that after annealing, the P profiles by implantation along the random equivalent direction can be kept shallower than the profiles obtained by implantation along the  channeling direction. Through proper annealing and electrical activation, only minimal diffusion in the tail region of the profiles occurred. For 50 keV P at 1×1015 at./cm2, changing the implantation from the  to the random equivalent direction leads to a reduction in the profile depth of about 50% (at 1×1017at./cm3). After 10 seconds of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1050 °C, the profile depth remains more than 30% shallower than the channeled profile.
The microstructure of Y-Ba-Cu-O compound, sintered at 950°C for 16h, was examined by using transmission electron microscope(TEM). For the furnace cooling sample, two variants of–orthorhombic YBa2-Cu3O7−x (O-Y123) twins, grown on (110) and (110) planes, respectively, are crystallographically related to the matrix and produce a Widmanstatten morphology. The orientation relationship between the lath twin and the matrix is (001)T//(001) and T//M. The O-Y123 compound is unstable under tne electron irradition. Twin boundaries are identified as S-boundaries. The minor phases as Y2BaCuO5 (Y211) and BaCuO2 were also observed. For the air cooling sample, no superconductivity above 77K was found. The major phase is tetragonal Y123 (T-Y123), while small amount of 0-Y123 is also existent.