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Describe the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of an outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)–producing organisms and the novel use of a cohorting unit for its control.
A 566-room academic teaching facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Solid-organ transplant recipients.
Infection control bundles were used throughout the time of observation. All KPC cases were intermittently housed in a cohorting unit with dedicated nurses and nursing aids. The rooms used in the cohorting unit had anterooms where clean supplies and linens were placed. Spread of KPC-producing organisms was determined using rectal surveillance cultures on admission and weekly thereafter among all consecutive patients admitted to the involved units. KPC-positive strains underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing.
A total of 8 KPC cases (5 identified by surveillance) were identified from April 2016 to April 2017. After the index patient, 3 patients acquired KPC-producing organisms despite implementation of an infection control bundle. This prompted the use of a cohorting unit, which immediately halted transmission, and the single remaining KPC case was transferred out of the cohorting unit. However, additional KPC cases were identified within 2 months. Once the cohorting unit was reopened, no additional KPC cases occurred. The KPC-positive species identified during this outbreak included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae complex, and Escherichia coli. blaKPC was identified on at least 2 plasmid backbones.
A complex KPC outbreak involving both clonal and plasmid-mediated dissemination was controlled using weekly surveillances and a cohorting unit.
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of the partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea on the performance, metabolism and whole-tract digestibility in mid-lactation dairy cows. Forty-two Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in each of three periods of 5 weeks duration in a Latin square design. Control (C) cows were offered a total mixed ration based on grass and maize silages and straight feeds that included 93 g/kg dry matter (DM) soyabean meal and 61 g/kg DM rapeseed meal. Cows that received either of the other two treatments were offered the same basal ration with the replacement of 28 g/kg DM soyabean and 19 g/kg DM rapeseed meal with either 5 g/kg DM feed grade urea (U) or 5.5 g/kg DM of the slow-release urea (S; Optigen®; Alltech Inc., Kentucky, USA), with the content of maize silage increasing. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of dietary treatment on DM intake, which averaged 22.5 kg/day. Similarly, there was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on daily milk or milk fat yield but there was a trend (P = 0.09) for cows offered either of the diets containing urea to have a higher milk fat content (average of 40.1 g/kg for U and S v. 38.9 g/kg for C). Milk true protein concentration and yield were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05). Milk yield from forage and N efficiency (g milk N output/g N intake) were highest (P < 0.01) in cows when offered S and lowest in C, with cows receiving U having intermediate values. Cows offered S also tended to have the highest live weight gain (0.38 kg/day) followed by U (0.23 kg/day) and C (0.01 kg/day; P = 0.07). Plasma urea concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) at 2 and 4 h post feeding in cows when offered U and lowest in C, with animals receiving S having intermediate values. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of treatment on whole-tract digestibility. In conclusion, the partial replacement of soyabean meal and rapeseed meal with feed grade urea or a slow-release urea can be achieved without affecting milk performance or diet digestibility, with the efficiency of conversion of dietary N into milk being improved when the slow-release urea was fed.
A survey was developed and distributed to the Massachusetts cranberry grower community in 1999 to identify biological, educational, social and political barriers to the adoption of available integrated pest management (IPM) practices. The response rate for the 450 growers who received the survey was 54%. Approximately 80% of respondents claimed to practice IPM frequently and 16% identified themselves as occasional practitioners. Most growers practiced IPM because they agreed with IPM philosophy (80%) and believed it had environmental benefits (73%). Ninety-two percent agreed that more IPM-related research and education programs would encourage them to adopt practices they are not currently using. A significant percentage of respondents used multiple IPM component practices, with practices involving monitoring and detection of pests along with judicious use of pesticides being most common. Factor analysis was used to condense 104 potential responses to 22 factors, which were then used as predictors with six demographic variables (IPM adoption, education level, age, experience, farm size and work status). Demographic factors influenced a grower's tendency to incorporate IPM into routine farm activities. Full-time, highly experienced growers in charge of large operations tended frequently to use more IPM practices than less experienced growers who worked part-time and managed smaller farms. A large proportion of respondents agreed that IPM can reduce pesticide residues in food (92%) and the environment (96%), and can help to preserve beneficial insects (96%). Although many growers held the perception that IPM can pose measurable economic risk (and subsequently act as a barrier to adoption), growers appeared to feel less strongly about the economic benefits than potential environmental ones.
Vapour cavities in liquid flows have long been associated with
cavitation damage to
nearby solid surfaces and it is thought that the final stage of collapse,
when a high-
speed liquid jet threads the cavity, plays a vital role in this process.
The present study
investigates this aspect of the motion of laser-generated cavities in a
when the distance (or stand-off) of the point of inception from a rigid
between 0.8 and 1.2 times the maximum radius of the cavity.
using a boundary integral method with an incompressible liquid impact model
a framework for the interpretation of the experimental results. It is observed
within the given interval of the stand-off parameter, the peak pressures
the boundary at the first collapse of a cavity attain a local minimum,
while at the
same time there is an increase in the duration of the pressure pulse. This
with a monotonic increase in the peak pressures as the stand-off is reduced,
the cavity inception point is outside the stated interval. This phenomenon
to be due to a splash effect which follows the impact of the liquid jet.
are chosen to typify the splash interaction with the free surface of the
cavity: (i) surface reconnection around the liquid jet; (ii) splash impact
at the base
of the liquid jet; (iii) thin film splash. Hydrodynamic pressures generated
splash impact are found to be much greater than those produced by the jet
The combination of splash impact and the emission of shock waves, together
the subsequent re-expansion, drives the flow around the toroidal cavity
distinctive double pressure peak.
The yeast S. cereviseae represents the first eukaryotic organism whose genome has been entirely sequenced as a result of the Human Genome Project(1). In this report we demonstrate the good agreement between an experimental high resolution melting curve of total nuclear S. cereviseae DNA and the theoretical melting calculated for the complete yeast DNA genome (12,067,277 bp: Saccharomyces Genome Database) by the statistical thermodynamics program MELTSIM, parameterized for long DNA sequences(2,3). The experimental and theoretical melting curves are both fairly symmetrical and possess nearly identical Tm values. Calculated melting of coding and flanking DNA regions indicates that flanking DNAs are more (A+T)-rich than coding sequences and account for the earliest melting DNA. Calculated melting curves of the 16 individual yeast chromosomes are very similar and with few exceptions exhibit symmetric melting curves. MELTSIM was also used to calculate a theoretical denaturation map of Chromosome III DNA. The agreement between MELTSIM calculated and experimental melting data demonstrates our ability to accurately simulate long DNA sequence melting in complex eukaryotic genomes, whose sequences are becoming increasingly available for study in public databases. This has important consequences for the understanding of sequence dependent energetic properties of DNA in their biological sequence context and also for their potential use in biomaterials applications.
High resolution melting curves of total nuclear Dictyostelium discoideum DNA (A×3 strain) are compared to theoretical melting calculated from GENBANK sequences(1.74 % of total) by the statistical thermodynamics program MELTSIM, parameterized for long DNA sequences(1,2). The lower and upper limits of simulated melting agree quantitatively with the experimental melting of total DNA. Calculated melting of coding, intron and flanking regions indicate that intron and flanking DNAs are extremely (A+T)-rich and account for the earliest melting DNA. There is no temperature overlap of these regions with coding DNA. A theoretical denaturation map of DNA containing the ribosomal DNA genes showed excellent agreement with subtransition positions of these genes in experimental curves. Agreement between these calculated and experimental melting data demonstrates our ability to accurately simulate DNA melting in complex eukaryotic genomes. This has important consequences for the understanding of sequence dependent energetic properties of nucleic acids and their potential use as biomaterials.
Direct measurements of the properties of subglacial water are necessary for understanding water flow beneath glaciers. In this paper we describe the construction, calibration and field usage of two instruments—one that measures turbidity and the other that measures electrical conductivity of subglacial water. The sensors are inexpensive and reliable. To demonstrate the potential usefulness of these devices, we present samples of data obtained from beneath Trapridge Glacier, Yukon Territory, Canada.
Borehole inclinometers are standard equipment for field glaciologists and are commonly used for investigating the flow law of ice and for measuring the spatial position of englacial and sub-surface sensors. The recent development, at the University of British Columbia (UBC), of a prototype inclinometer that employs a three-component fluxgate magentometer to obtain a compass bearing has stimulated our interest in borehole inclinometry. Following a review of various approaches to glacier inclinometry, we present a unified theory of data interpretation that can be applied to all inclinometers, discuss the application of the theory to the UBC inclinometer, and discuss the sensitivity of the theory to error in the data.
The Net Present Value Sire Summary Professional Package (NPVSS) is a microcomputer program designed for technical personnel to help dairy producers better manage investments in genetic improvement. NPVSS is written in C language, utilizes the MS-DOS operating system, and requires 256K of RAM. It is menu driven and includes parameter screens to define herd management characteristics of individual producers. Profit rankings of bulls can be generated to evaluate alternative: a) objective functions (selection policies for genetic merit in milk income and type scores), b) herd management performance factors (conception rate, calving interval, age at first calving), and c) economic factors (milk price, semen price, discount rate, planning horizon).
The dissemination of information by extension agents on dairy management practices used to control mastitis and the reception and use of that information by producers are investigated. Producers are surveyed to determine current practices used. The relationship between milk yield, somatic cell count, management practices, and producer and production characteristics is estimated. Subjective probabilities are elicited from “experts,” extension agents, and producers concerning the impact and cost of various management practices. Subjective marginal value products and marginal input costs are computed and compared for the respondent groups. Stochastic dominance is used to rank the relative importance of the practices as perceived by the respondents.
Considerable research has been conducted over the years to determine optimal rations for dairy cattle. Dean et al. extended earlier work through a comprehensive examination of milk production functions, isoquant shapes, and feed systems to maximize income over feed cost (IOFC) for a given point in time.
The following notes are for the most part based upon the actual valuation of a registered friendly society and an attempt is made to describe the various operations involved and the points which arise for consideration, from the time the actuary (or valuer as he is commonly known in friendly society circles) is approached, to the time he signs his report and presents it to the society. I have, however, digressed occasionally from the main subject of these notes in order to express my views on certain general points which frequently arise in the valuations of friendly societies. It should be understood that these notes do not necessarily embody official opinion.
The specimen society is a typical “centralised” rural society (i.e. without branches) of about 1,000 members, their occupations being described as domestic, horticultural and agricultural.
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