An ornithological survey was conducted in December 1994 at the lower Río Nangaritza valley in southern Ecuador, during which 181 species were recorded. These data combined with published records reveal the number of species known for this area to be 290. Of these, nine species are classified as globally vulnerable: Solitary Eagle Harpyhaliaetus solitarius, White-breasted Parakeet Pyrrhura albipectus, Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictoptera, Napo Sabrewing Campylopterus villaviscensio, Ecuadorean Piedtail Phlogophilus hemileucurus, Lanceolated Monklet Micromonacha lanceolata, Coppery-chested Jacamar Galbula pastazae, Fiery-throated Fruiteater Pipreola chlorolepidota and Orange-throated Tanager Wetmorethraupis sterrhopteron. Of the 290 species listed 115 are currently unrecorded in the adjacent Podocarpus National Park and therefore inhabit no protected area in southern Ecuador. Wildlife of the Nangaritza valley is threatened by gold mining, encroachment and hunting. Given the high avian diversity and the known botanical importance of the area plans to conserve the undisturbed forests of this region as part of a buffer zone for the adjacent Podocarpus National Park are recommended.