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The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as ‘gut nutrient chemosensing’. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v. grazing (G) during early development. In total, 44 kid goats (initial weight 1.35±0.12 kg) were slaughtered for sampling (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) between days 0 and 70. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 were measured at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GPR40 and GPR119 were assayed at protein level only. The effects of age and feeding system on their expression were variable depending upon GIT segments, chemoreceptors and expression level (mRNA or protein), and sometimes feeding system × age interactions (P<0.05) were observed. Supplemental feeding enhanced expression of GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 in most segments of the GIT of goats, whereas G enhanced expression of GPR119. GPR41 and GPR43 were mainly expressed in rumen, abomasum and cecum, with different responses to age and feeding system. GPR41 and GPR43 expression in abomasum at mRNA level was greatly (P<0.01) affected by both age and feeding system; whereas their expression in rumen and abomasum at protein level were different, feeding system greatly (P<0.05) affected GPR41 expression, but had no effect (P>0.05) on GPR43 expression; and there were no feeding system×age interactions (P>0.05) on GPR41 and GPR43 protein expression. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in rumen and abomasum linearly (P<0.01) increased with increasing age (from days 0 to 70). Meanwhile, age was the main factor affecting GPR40 expression throughout the GIT. These outcomes indicate that age and feeding system are the two factors affecting chemoreceptors for FFAs and lipid derivatives expression in the GIT of kids goats, and S enhanced the expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs, whereas G gave rise to greater expression of chemoreceptors for lipid derivatives. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs might be one of the benefits of early supplemental feeding offered to young ruminants during early development.
Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and viral hepatitis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the absence of clinical management, making identification of these cases crucial. We examined characteristics of HIV and viral hepatitis coinfections by using surveillance data from 15 US states and two cities. Each jurisdiction used an automated deterministic matching method to link surveillance data for persons with reported acute and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, to persons reported with HIV infection. Of the 504 398 persons living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2014, 2.0% were coinfected with HBV and 6.7% were coinfected with HCV. Of the 269 884 persons ever reported with HBV, 5.2% were reported with HIV. Of the 1 093 050 persons ever reported with HCV, 4.3% were reported with HIV. A greater proportion of persons coinfected with HIV and HBV were males and blacks/African Americans, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Persons who inject drugs represented a greater proportion of those coinfected with HIV and HCV, compared with those with HIV monoinfection. Matching HIV and viral hepatitis surveillance data highlights epidemiological characteristics of persons coinfected and can be used to routinely monitor health status and guide state and national public health interventions.
Honeybee foraging can transfer exogenous genes from genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to closely related plants, which not only induces potential ecological risks but also contaminates non-GM seeds or honey products with GM ingredients. These events may lead to international trade disputes. Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and a herbicide (glufosinate)-resistant GM strain of B. napus (Z7B10) were studied to examine the effects of honeybee short-range foraging on oilseed rape gene flow and honey ingredients. Results showed variable frequencies of gene flow between GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars, with the highest frequency under nylon net isolation with artificially stocked honeybees, the lowest frequency under nylon net isolation alone, and an intermediate frequency under natural pollination, suggesting the important role of honeybee foraging in gene flow frequency. Additionally, GM pollen grains were found in honey collected from honeybees foraging on both GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars. The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase protein was also detected in both unbroken pollen-containing and pollen-free honey by protein testing strips, suggesting that honeybee foraging on GM oilseed rape could lead to contamination with GM ingredients. Overall, the results provide a direct scientific basis for the ecological risk assessment and safety management of GM oilseed rape.
The numerical stability of the explicit precise algorithm, which was developed for the viscoplastic materials, was analyzed. It was found that this algorithm is not absolutely stable. A necessary but not sufficient condition for the numerical stability was deduced. It showed that the time step in numerical calculation should be less than a certain value to guarantee the stability of explicit precise algorithm. Through a series of numerical examples, the stability analysis on the explicit precise algorithm was proved to be reliable. At last, an iterative algorithm was presented for viscoplastic materials. Both of the theoretical and numerical results showed that the iterative algorithm is unconditionally stable and its convergence rate is rapid. In practice, the explicit precise algorithm and iterative algorithm can be combined to obtain reliable results with the minimum computing costs.
Chinese psychiatrists have gradually started to focus on those who are deemed to be at ‘clinical high-risk (CHR)’ for psychosis; however, it is still unknown how often those individuals identified as CHR from a different country background than previously studied would transition to psychosis. The objectives of this study are to examine baseline characteristics and the timing of symptom onset, help-seeking, or transition to psychosis over a 2-year period in China.
The presence of CHR was determined with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) at the participants' first visit to the mental health services. A total of 86 (of 117) CHR participants completed the clinical follow-up of at least 2 years (73.5%). Conversion was determined using the criteria of presence of psychotic symptoms (in SIPS). Analyses examined baseline demographic and clinical predictors of psychosis and trajectory of symptoms over time. Survival analysis (Kaplan–Meier) methods along with Log-rank tests were performed to illustrate the relationship of baseline data to either conversion or non-conversion over time. Cox regression was performed to identify baseline predictors of conversion by the 2-year follow-up.
In total 25 (29.1%) of 86 completers transitioned to a psychotic disorder over the course of follow-up. Among the CHR sample, the mean time between attenuated symptom onset and professional help-seeking was about 4 months on average, and converters developed fully psychotic symptoms about 12 months after symptom onset. Compared with those CHR participants whose risk syndromes remitted over the course of the study, converters had significantly longer delays (p = 0.029) for their first visit to a professional in search of help. At baseline assessment, the conversion subgroup was younger, had poorer functioning, higher total SIPS positive symptom scores, longer duration of untreated prodromal symptoms, and were more often given psychosis-related diagnoses and subsequently prescribed antipsychotics in the clinic.
Chinese CHR identified primarily by a novel clinical screening approach had a 2-year transition rate comparable with those of specialised help-seeking samples world-wide. Early clinical intervention with this functionally deteriorating clinical population who are suffering from attenuated psychotic symptoms, is a next step in applying the CHR construct in China.
Optical properties and thermal relaxation dynamics of resonantly excited plasmons are important in applications for optoelectronics, biomedicine, energy, and catalysis. Geometric optics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin films containing uniformly or asymmetrically distributed polydisperse reduced AuNPs or uniformly distributed monodisperse solution-synthesized AuNPs were recently evaluated using a compact linear algebraic sum. Algebraic calculation of geometric transmission, reflection, and attenuation for AuNP-PDMS films provides a simple, workable alternative to effective medium approximations, computationally expensive methods, and fitting of experimental data. This approach allows for the summative optical responses of a sequence of 2D elements comprising a 3D assembly to be analyzed. Thin PDMS films containing 3-7 micron layers of reduced AuNPs were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior photothermal response relative to thicker films with AuNPs reduced throughout, with a photon-to-heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt which represents 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNP-functionalized systems. Later work showed that introduction of AuNPs into PDMS enhanced thermoplasmonic dissipation coincident with internal reflection of incident resonant irradiation. Measured thermal emission and dynamics of AuNP-PDMS thin films exceeded emission and dynamics attributable by finite element analysis to Mie absorption, Fourier heat conduction, Rayleigh convection, and Stefan-Boltzmann radiation. Refractive-index matching experiments and measured temperature profiles indicated AuNP-containing thin films internally reflected light and dissipated power transverse to the film surface. Enhanced thermoplasmonic dissipation from metal-polymer nanocomposite thin films could affect opto- and bio-electronic implementation of these systems.
Human infection with the emerging avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China in 2013 has raised global concerns. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of 27 confirmed human influenza A(H7N9) cases in Jiangsu Province, to elaborate poultry-related exposures and to provide a more precise estimate of the incubation periods of the illness. The median incubation period was 6 days (range 2–10 days) in cases with single known exposure and was 7·5 days (range 6·5–12·5 days) in cases with exposures on multiple days, difference between the two groups was not significant (Z = −1·895, P = 0·058). The overall median incubation period for all patients was estimated to be 7·5 days (range 2–12·5 days). Our findings further highlight the necessity for public health authorities to extend the period of medical surveillance from 7 days to 10 days.
Semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots are becoming increasingly popular in research fields as wide ranging as cancer therapies, solar energy and disease detection. Colloidal synthesis provides a low-cost method of producing high quality quantum dots with narrow size distributions. The controllable nature of colloidal synthesis allows researchers to design the size, shape and surface functionalization of the resulting particles.
Here we investigate a simple low temperature method to produce CdSe quantum dots. The quantum dots were grown in solution by dissolving the CdO precursor in a mixture of macadamia oil, and oleic acid. Elemental Se was heated separately before the two mixtures were combined under an inert atmosphere. The injection temperature, reaction temperature and oleic acid concentration were all varied.
Optical absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopies showed the size of the quantum dots increased with time, temperature and oleic acid concentration. Dynamic light scattering has shown the hydrodynamic particle size to range from 7 to 22nm and the samples for up to 6 months.
Nanoparticles (NPs) with either plasmonic or upconverting properties have been selectively coated onto the surfaces of polystyrene (PS) spheres, imparting their optical properties to the PS colloids. These NP coated PS spheres have many potential applications, such as in medicine as drug-delivery systems or diagnostic tools. To prepare the NP coated PS spheres, gold or core-shell NaYF4Tm0.5Yb30/NaYF4 NPs were synthesized and separately combined with amino-functionalized PS spheres. The mechanism by which the NPs adhered to the PS spheres is attributed to interactions of the NP and a polyvinylpyrrolidone additive with the surfaces of the PS spheres. Two-photon fluorescence microscopy and SERS analysis demonstrate the potential applications of these NP coated PS spheres.
An investigation with computational fluid dynamics of the ground effect on a small bird revealed quantitatively the obstruction of the vortex expansion resulting from the presence of the ground at varied distance. Preceding authors focused mainly on the bird's wings, generally neglecting the bird's body; we discuss specifically the distinction of the aerodynamic effect between cases with and without the presence of the bird's body. The results of simulation show that, considering only two wings, for a distance between the wing model and the ground smaller than a semi-span, the smaller is the ground clearance, the more significant is the ground effect. At clearance 0.37 times a semi-span, the drag is decreased 11%, and the lift is increased 5.6%. The ground effect for an intact bird model composed of both wings and body is less effective than that for a simplified model with body omitted, because a suction was observed on the lower surface of the intact bird's trunk at clearance 0.37 times a semi-span; for this reason the intact bird model benefits less from the ground effect than the model with body excluded, but increased lift and decreased drag remain observable. This research treating the ground effect on a gliding bird reveals the importance of the presence of the bird's body in both computational and experimental models.
The double side approach method combines the method of weighted residuals (MWR) with mathematical programming to solve the differential equations. Once the differential equation is proved to satisfy the maximum principle, collocation method and mathematical programming are used to transfer the problem into a bilateral inequality. By utilizing Genetic Algorithms optimization method, the maximum and minimum solutions which satisfy the inequality can be found. Adopting this method, quite less computer memory and time are needed than those required for finite element method.
In this paper, the incompressible-Newtonian, fully-developed, steady-state laminar flow in equilateral triangular, rectangular, elliptical and super-elliptical ducts is studied. Based on the maximum principle of differential equations, the monotonicity of the Laplace operator can be proved and the double side approach method can be applied. Different kinds of trial functions are constructed to meet the no-slip boundary condition, and it was demonstrated that the results are in great agreement with the analytical solutions or the formerly presented works. The efficiency, accuracy, and simplicity of the double side approach method are fully illustrated in the present study to indicate that the method is powerful for solving boundary value problems.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella are an important but poorly characterized cause of paediatric diarrhoea in developing countries. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in children aged <5 years in Ho Chi Minh City to define the epidemiology and examine risk factors associated with Salmonella diarrhoeal infections. From 1419 diarrhoea cases and 571 controls enrolled between 2009 and 2010, 77 (5·4%) diarrhoea cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella. Salmonella patients were more likely to be younger than controls (median age 10 and 12 months, respectively) [odds ratio (OR) 0·97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·94–0·99], to report a recent diarrhoeal contact (8·1% cases, 1·8% controls; OR 5·98, 95% CI 1·8–20·4) and to live in a household with >2 children (cases 20·8%, controls 10·2%; OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·2–4·7). Our findings indicate that Salmonella are an important cause of paediatric gastroenteritis in this setting and we suggest that transmission may occur through direct human contact in the home.
With spin polarized electron spectroscopies, we have investigated ordered Gd (0001) films deposited on W (110). The photoemission features of the gadolinium 5d surface state, the 4f levels, and the background exhibit considerable spin polarization along the same direction in the plane of the film, indicative of ferromagnetic coupling between the surface and the bulk. The 4f spin polarized photoemission data provides strong evidence that the surface 4f polarization differs from the bulk 4f polarization for Gd (000l). Our temperature dependent measurements with spin polarized secondary electron spectroscopy conclusively establishes that the surface of clean Gd (0001) possesses a perpendicular polarization component which persists to an enhanced surface Curie temperature. SMall amounts of contamination at the surface result in the disappearance of the perpendicular component and, therefore, a more perfect ferromagnetic coupling between the surface and the bulk.
The photophysics and nonlinear absorption behaviour of a series of α, ω-dithienyl polyenes were studied in chloroform and n-octane solutions. Steady state fluorescence, fluorescence lifetime and quantum yield measurements were made. The fluorescence quantum yields were significantly lower than those of the corresponding ax,o-diphenyl polyenes. Among the dithienyl polyenes, 3,3′-substituted polyenes exhibited stronger fluorescence than those of the 2,2′-substituted. Nonlinear optical absorption experiments showed evidence of two photon absorption.
We have characterized magnetization loops of epitaxially grown Gd (0001) films on W (110) in the temperature range 145≤T≤300K. This was accomplished by measuring magneto-optical Kerr loops in UHV, in the transverse geometry, using a 2×10-4 deg sensitivity differential detector and He-Ne laser light.
Films grown in the Stranski-Krastanov (SK) Mode (growth temperature 400°C) and films grown in a Frank-van-der-Merwe (FM) like Mode (growth temperature 20°C) behave significantly differently. While the room temperature grown films (FM) show square hysteresis behavior only after an annealing cycle to at least 300°C, the higher growth temperature (SK) leads to highly remanent films in the as grown state.
The hysteresis behavior of these films is most important in conjunction with recently reported spin-polarized photoemission results, which showed that the growth temperature and therefore the film morphology has a strong influence on the surface magnetic reconstruction of Gd (0001) .
To describe three rare cases of nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and to discuss the route of tumour spread from nasopharynx to lacrimal system as well as the relevant computed tomography findings.
We report three cases of nasolacrimal relapse in patients with previously treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The common initial presentations in these cases were epiphora and medial canthal swelling. The tumour spread from the nasopharynx to the lacrimal sac along the lateral nasal wall and nasolacrimal canal. Computed tomography demonstrated nasolacrimal canal invasion and osteomeatal complex obliteration by the tumour. Distant metastasis was detected in two cases.
More targeted radiotherapy should be delivered to prevent under-treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Nasolacrimal relapse of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is an advanced disease with a poor prognosis.
In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China?
Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups of Han Chinese women: 1970 clinically ascertained cases with recurrent MD and 2597 matched controls. MD was assessed at personal interview.
Factor analysis of the PBI revealed three factors for both mothers and fathers: warmth, protectiveness, and authoritarianism. Lower warmth and protectiveness and higher authoritarianism from both mother and father were significantly associated with risk for recurrent MD. Parental warmth was positively correlated with parental protectiveness and negatively correlated with parental authoritarianism. When examined together, paternal warmth was more strongly associated with lowered risk for MD than maternal warmth. Furthermore, paternal protectiveness was negatively and maternal protectiveness positively associated with risk for MD.
Although the structure of received parenting is very similar in China and Western countries, the association with MD is not. High parental protectiveness is generally pathogenic in Western countries but protective in China, especially when received from the father. Our results suggest that cultural factors impact on patterns of parenting and their association with MD.
Background: The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-NAB) offers information on the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and gives a profile of cognitive functioning. This study explores the effects of age, education and gender on participants' performance on eight subtests in the Chinese-Cantonese version of the CERAD-NAB.
Methods: The original English version of the CERAD-NAB was translated and content-validated into a Chinese-Cantonese version to suit the Hong Kong Chinese population. The battery was administered to 187 healthy volunteers aged 60 to 94 years. Participants were excluded if they had neurological, medical or psychiatric disorders (including dementia). Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relative contribution of the demographic variables to the scores on each subtest.
Results: The Cantonese version of CERAD-NAB was shown to have good content validity and excellent inter-rater reliability. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that performances on seven and four out of eight subtests in the CERAD-NAB were significantly influenced by education level and age, respectively. Age and education had significant effects on participants' performance on many tests. Gender also showed a significant effect on one subtest.
Conclusions: The preliminary data will serve as an initial phase for clinical interpretation of the CERAD-NAB for Cantonese-speaking Chinese elders.