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The strong-coupling mode, called the “quasimode”, is excited by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions. Also SBS of the quasimode competes with SBS of the fast mode (or slow mode) in multi-ion species plasmas, thus leading to a low-frequency burst behavior of SBS reflectivity. Competition between the quasimode and the ion-acoustic wave (IAW) is an important saturation mechanism of SBS in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions. These results give a clear explanation of the low-frequency periodic burst behavior of SBS and should be considered as a saturation mechanism of SBS in high-intensity laser–plasma interactions.
Global inequity in access to and availability of essential mental health services is well recognized. The mental health treatment gap is approximately 50% in all countries, with up to 90% of people in the lowest-income countries lacking access to required mental health services. Increased investment in global mental health (GMH) has increased innovation in mental health service delivery in LMICs. Situational analyses in areas where mental health services and systems are poorly developed and resourced are essential when planning for research and implementation, however, little guidance is available to inform methodological approaches to conducting these types of studies. This scoping review provides an analysis of methodological approaches to situational analysis in GMH, including an assessment of the extent to which situational analyses include equity in study designs. It is intended as a resource that identifies current gaps and areas for future development in GMH. Formative research, including situational analysis, is an essential first step in conducting robust implementation research, an essential area of study in GMH that will help to promote improved availability of, access to and reach of mental health services for people living with mental illness in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While strong leadership in this field exists, there remain significant opportunities for enhanced research representing different LMICs and regions.
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) results in substantial numbers of hospitalisations and deaths in older adults. There are known lifestyle and medical risk factors for pneumococcal disease but the magnitude of the additional risk is not well quantified in Australia. We used a large population-based prospective cohort study of older adults in the state of New South Wales (45 and Up Study) linked to cause-specific hospitalisations, disease notifications and death registrations from 2006 to 2015. We estimated the age-specific incidence of CAP hospitalisation (ICD-10 J12-18), invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) notification and presumptive non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisation (J13 + J18.1, excluding IPD), comparing those with at least one risk factor to those with no risk factors. The hospitalised case-fatality rate (CFR) included deaths in a 30-day window after hospitalisation. Among 266 951 participants followed for 1 850 000 person-years there were 8747 first hospitalisations for CAP, 157 IPD notifications and 305 non-invasive pneumococcal CAP hospitalisations. In persons 65–84 years, 54.7% had at least one identified risk factor, increasing to 57.0% in those ⩾85 years. The incidence of CAP hospitalisation in those ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor was twofold higher than in those without risk factors, 1091/100 000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1060–1122) compared with 522/100 000 (95% CI 501–545) and IPD in equivalent groups was almost threefold higher (18.40/100 000 (95% CI 14.61–22.87) vs. 6.82/100 000 (95% CI 4.56–9.79)). The CFR increased with age but there were limited difference by risk status, except in those aged 45 to 64 years. Adults ⩾65 years with at least one risk factor have much higher rates of CAP and IPD suggesting that additional risk factor-based vaccination strategies may be cost-effective.
A multichannel calorimeter system is designed and constructed which is capable of delivering single-shot and broad-band spectral measurement of terahertz (THz) radiation generated in intense laser–plasma interactions. The generation mechanism of backward THz radiation (BTR) is studied by using the multichannel calorimeter system in an intense picosecond laser–solid interaction experiment. The dependence of the BTR energy and spectrum on laser energy, target thickness and pre-plasma scale length is obtained. These results indicate that coherent transition radiation is responsible for the low-frequency component (
1 THz) of BTR. It is also observed that a large-scale pre-plasma primarily enhances the high-frequency component (
3 THz) of BTR.
Some time ago, J. G. Wendel proved that the operators on the group algebra L1(G) which commute with convolution correspond in a natural way to the measure algebra M(G) (13). One might ask if Wendel's theorem can be restated in a more general setting. It is this question that is the point of departure for our present paper. Let K be a Banach module over L1(G). Our interest is in operators from L1(G) into K, and from K into L∞(G), which commute with the module composition (where L∞(G) is thought of as a module over L1(G) also). Such operators we call (L1(G), K)- and (K, L∞(G))-homomorphisms, respectively. Investigations of various other kinds of module homomorphisms occur in A. Figà-Talamanca (6) and B. E. Johnson (9; 10).
The present paper began as a natural outgrowth of our first paper, where we characterized the module homomorphisms from group algebras into a fairly restrictive class of group algebra modules. We now investigate module homomorphisms from group algebras into a more general class of group algebra modules. Although the two papers are thus related, they can be read quite independently.
Section 2 contains our extension, Theorem 2.1, of P. J. Cohen's theorem on factorization in Banach algebras (1). Our extension is to Banach modules over Banach algebras equipped with an approximate identity. We should mention first that J.-K. Wang observed the existence of such a generalization, and secondly, that our proof requires no ideas different from those in Cohen's proof. Nevertheless, we include a proof that condenses the original proof considerably.
Cultivated pastures in southern China are being used to improve forage productivity and animal performance, but studies on grazing behaviour of goats in these cultivated pastures are still rare. In the current study, the grazing behaviour of Yunling black goats under low (5 goats/ha) and high (15 goats/ha) stocking rates (SRs) was evaluated. Data showed that the proportion of time goats spent on activities was: eating (0.59–0.87), ruminating (0.05–0.35), walking (0.03–0.06) and resting (0.01–0.03). Compared with low SR, goats spent more time eating and walking, and less time ruminating and resting under high SR. Goats had similar diet preferences under both SR and preferred to eat grasses (ryegrass and cocksfoot) more than a legume (white clover). The distribution of eating time on each forage species was more uniform under high v. low SR. Bites/step, bite weight and daily intake were greater under low than high SR. Results suggest that the SR affects grazing behaviour of goats on cultivated pasture, and identifying an optimal SR is critical for increasing bite weight and intake.
The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of animals is capable of sensing various kinds of nutrients via G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling transduction pathways, and the process is known as ‘gut nutrient chemosensing’. GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 are chemoreceptors for free fatty acids (FFAs) and lipid derivatives, but they are not well studied in small ruminants. The objective of this study is to determine the expression of GPR40, GPR41, GPR43 and GPR119 along the GIT of kid goats under supplemental feeding (S) v. grazing (G) during early development. In total, 44 kid goats (initial weight 1.35±0.12 kg) were slaughtered for sampling (rumen, abomasum, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum) between days 0 and 70. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 were measured at both mRNA and protein levels, whereas GPR40 and GPR119 were assayed at protein level only. The effects of age and feeding system on their expression were variable depending upon GIT segments, chemoreceptors and expression level (mRNA or protein), and sometimes feeding system × age interactions (P<0.05) were observed. Supplemental feeding enhanced expression of GPR40, GPR41 and GPR43 in most segments of the GIT of goats, whereas G enhanced expression of GPR119. GPR41 and GPR43 were mainly expressed in rumen, abomasum and cecum, with different responses to age and feeding system. GPR41 and GPR43 expression in abomasum at mRNA level was greatly (P<0.01) affected by both age and feeding system; whereas their expression in rumen and abomasum at protein level were different, feeding system greatly (P<0.05) affected GPR41 expression, but had no effect (P>0.05) on GPR43 expression; and there were no feeding system×age interactions (P>0.05) on GPR41 and GPR43 protein expression. The expression of GPR41 and GPR43 in rumen and abomasum linearly (P<0.01) increased with increasing age (from days 0 to 70). Meanwhile, age was the main factor affecting GPR40 expression throughout the GIT. These outcomes indicate that age and feeding system are the two factors affecting chemoreceptors for FFAs and lipid derivatives expression in the GIT of kids goats, and S enhanced the expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs, whereas G gave rise to greater expression of chemoreceptors for lipid derivatives. Our results suggest that enhanced expression of chemoreceptors for FFAs might be one of the benefits of early supplemental feeding offered to young ruminants during early development.
We report on a novel processing route to prepare La0.8Ce0.2(Fe0.95Co0.05)11.8Si1.2/Cu bulk composites by low-temperature hot pressing. With increasing copper content, the compressive strength of the composites first decrease and then increase owing to the buffering effect of copper, but the magnetocaloric effect reduces to some extent. Copper addition improves the thermal conductivity of the composites, which compensates for the decrease in thermal conductivity due to porosity. A relatively large entropy change of 5.75–7.19 J/(kg K) at 2 T near the Curie temperature (249 K), good thermal conductivity of 7.51–15.55 W/(m·K), and improved compressive strength of 151.1–248.0 MPa make these composites attractive magnetic refrigeration materials.
Honeybee foraging can transfer exogenous genes from genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) to closely related plants, which not only induces potential ecological risks but also contaminates non-GM seeds or honey products with GM ingredients. These events may lead to international trade disputes. Chinese honeybees (Apis cerana cerana Fabricius) and a herbicide (glufosinate)-resistant GM strain of B. napus (Z7B10) were studied to examine the effects of honeybee short-range foraging on oilseed rape gene flow and honey ingredients. Results showed variable frequencies of gene flow between GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars, with the highest frequency under nylon net isolation with artificially stocked honeybees, the lowest frequency under nylon net isolation alone, and an intermediate frequency under natural pollination, suggesting the important role of honeybee foraging in gene flow frequency. Additionally, GM pollen grains were found in honey collected from honeybees foraging on both GM and non-GM oilseed rape cultivars. The phosphinothricin acetyltransferase protein was also detected in both unbroken pollen-containing and pollen-free honey by protein testing strips, suggesting that honeybee foraging on GM oilseed rape could lead to contamination with GM ingredients. Overall, the results provide a direct scientific basis for the ecological risk assessment and safety management of GM oilseed rape.
This study presents a new groove profile using the slant groove depth arrangements to enhance the performance of micro-HGJBs. The computational analysis was based on the steady-state three-dimensional conservation equations of mass and momentum in conjunction with the cavitation model to examine the complex lubricated flow field. The simulated results of load capacity and circumferential pressure distribution of lubricant film are in good agreement with the measurement data and the predictions cited in the literature. Numerical experiments were extended to determine the pressure distribution, load capacity, radial stiffness and friction torque by varying the slant ratio of groove depth, eccentricity ratio, rotational speed and attitude angle. The cavitation extent of lubricant film was also studied for different slant groove patterns.
The autofocusing (AF) performance of cell phone cameras is critically dependent on the design of the voice-coil motor (VCM) used to drive the lens module. Also, the metal springs in the AF module should combine high stiffness with a good actuation response and a light weight. The present study utilizes a reverse engineering approach to construct three-dimensional finite element models of the top and bottom springs in the VCM mechanism. Simulations are then performed to investigate the von Mises stress distribution and stiffness characteristics of the two springs given horizontal and vertical orientations of the AF module, respectively. In performing the simulations, the actuation force is computed using two different analysis methods, namely a simplify structure method and a coupled electromagnetic-structural method. It is shown that the simplify structure method has the advantages of a lower computational complexity and a more comprehensive modeling capability. A further series of simulations is thus to examine the effects of the spring shape parameters on the reaction force developed by the spring stiffness. The results show that the spring stiffness increases with an increasing thickness and a decreasing rib length. The simulation results obtained for different spring shape parameter settings are summarized in the form of a parameter design chart for predicting the reaction force given known values of the spring rib length and spring thickness.
An automated method of estimating the spatial distribution of piglets within a pen was used to assess huddling behaviour under normal conditions and during a febrile response to vaccination. The automated method was compared with a manual assessment of clustering activity. Huddling behaviour was partly related to environmental conditions and clock time such that more huddling occurred during the night and at lower ambient air temperatures. There were no positive relationships between maximum pig temperatures and environmental conditions, suggesting that the narrow range of air temperatures in this study was not a significant factor for pig temperature. Spatial distribution affected radiated pig temperature measurements by IR thermography. Higher temperatures were recorded in groups of animals displaying huddling behaviour. Huddling behaviour was affected by febrile responses to vaccination with increased huddling occurring 3 to 8 h post-vaccination. The automated method of assessing spatial distribution from an IR image successfully identified periods of huddling associated with a febrile response, and to changing environmental temperatures. Infrared imaging could be used to quantify temperature and behaviour from the same images.
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
Introduction: Walking as a form of active transportation is promoted by health professions and environmentalists alike. While the health benefits are indisputable, active transportation is not without risk. Pedestrians are vulnerable road users who often suffer serious injuries especially when involved with collisions with motor-vehicles. While pedestrian injuries involving motor-vehicles are captured in road trauma surveillance systems based on police crash reports, non-collision injuries in this population may be caused by poorly designed infrastructure but are seldom counted as road trauma. This gap hinders road improvement efforts aiming to increase safety for all road users. This study aims to address this knowledge gap. Our objective is to study the profile and circumstances of injuries in pedestrians presenting to ED. Methods: This was a cross-sectional historical chart review study. All injured patients attending our ED are electronically flagged according to mechanism of injury. We reviewed the medical charts of all ED visits flagged as “Pedestrian” or “Fall” to identify all injured pedestrians (defined in this study as anyone walking on a public roadway or getting on/off public transportation). All pedestrian injuries occurred in 2015 were included for chart review. Results: In 2015, a total of 6192 ED presentations were flagged as pedestrian (n=436) or fall (n=5756), and 1108 of these met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 181 (16%) were admitted to hospital. Older pedestrians (≥70 yrs) had a higher hospital admission rate (78/303; 27%) compared to younger ones (<70 yrs: 103/805; 13%). Collision with motor vehicles (MVCs) resulted in only 25% of pedestrian injuries while fall (or tripping) accounted for about 72%. MVC related injuries were more common in younger pedestrians (29% vs 13%) whereas fall related injuries occurred more in older pedestrians (85% vs 67%). The most commonly sustained injuries among the fallers were abrasions followed by fractures. Conclusion: Police crash reports (which capture only MVC related pedestrian injuries) or hospital admission data (which miss those who are treated and released from ED) do not capture all cases of pedestrian injury. ED visit data provides a more realistic count of pedestrian injuries. More pedestrian injuries are caused by falls than by MVCs and policymakers should pay more attention to fall prevention strategies for older pedestrians outside their home environment.
Introduction: Cycling as a form of active transportation is popular in many urban communities. However, little is known about the prevalence and circumstances of cycling injuries, particularly injuries resulting from single bicycle crashes which are not recorded in road trauma surveillance systems based on police crash reports. This study aimed to examine the profile and circumstances of cycling injuries seen in an urban emergency department (ED). Methods: This was a cross-sectional historical chart review study. All injured patients attending our ED are electronically flagged according to mechanism of injury. We reviewed the medical charts of all ED visits in 2015 that were flagged as “Cyclist Injury” or “Fall” to identify all cyclists who were injured while travelling on public roads (including sidewalks). Off road injuries were excluded. Results: In 2015, a total of 6450 ED presentations were flagged as cyclist injury (n=694) or fall (n=5756), and 667 cycling injuries met our inclusion criteria. Of these, 73 (11%) were admitted to hospital. The most common mechanisms of injury were fall from bicycle (51%), crash into stationary object (16%), and collisions with moving motor vehicles (25%). Potential contributing factors included alcohol or drug impairment (11%), road hazards (9%), avoidance manoeuvre (5%) and dooring (3%), although the cause of the crash was generally poorly documented in the medical charts. The most common injured body regions were upper extremity (55%) followed by head and neck (34%). Most injuries were abrasions/lacerations and fractures. Conclusion: Two thirds of cyclist injuries in this series were caused by single bicycle incidents, events not captured in official road trauma statistics which are based on police crash reports. The large majority of injured cyclists were treated and released from the ED. In most cases, the cause of the crash was poorly documented. This data highlights the limitations of using police crash reports or hospital admission records for road trauma surveillance and the significant knowledge gap in our understanding of causative factors leading to cycling injuries.
We report a novel approach to the instantaneous photoinitiated synthesis of mixed anatase-rutile nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films with a three-dimensional nanostructure through pulsed white light irradiation of photosensitive Ti-organic precursor films. Pulsed photoinitiated pyrolysis accompanied by instantaneous self-assembly and crystallization occurred to form graphitic oxides-coated TiO2 nanograins. Subsequent pulsed light irradiation working as in situ pulsed photothermal treatment improved the crystalline quality of TiO2 film despite its low attenuation of light. The non-radiative recombination of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 nanograins, coupled with inefficient heat dissipation due to low thermal conductivity, produces enough heat to provide the thermodynamic driving force for improving the crystalline quality. The graphitic oxides were reduced by pulsed photothermal treatment and can be completely removed by oxygen plasma cleaning. This photoinitiated nanofabrication technology opens a promising way for the low-cost and high-throughput manufacturing of nanostructured metal oxides as well as TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films.
Using the data from the LAMOST Galactic spectroscopic surveys and some other surveys, we have started a series of work to measure the mass distribution of our Galaxy. As a result of the first-stage, we have constructed the Galactic rotation curve out to 100 kpc and the Galactic escape velocity curve between 5 and 14 kpc. From the two curves, we have built parametrized mass models for our Galaxy, respectively. Both models yield a similar result for the Milky Way's virial mass: ~ 0.9 × 1012 M⊙.