Strongyloides fuelleborni is a soil-transmitted nematode parasite of non-human primates. The worm is prevalent also in human populations in Africa and South-East Asia. In this study, we amplified and sequenced a portion of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene (rRNA) and of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene of Strongyloides adult males recovered from faecal samples from long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Thailand and Lao PDR. The prevalence in Thailand was 31.1% (55/177) and in Lao PDR it was 62.1% (41/66), with an overall prevalence of 39.5% (96/243). All 18S rRNA sequences that we obtained (n = 96) showed 100% identity with published S. fuelleborni sequences. The 96 cox1 sequences that we obtained represented 32 new haplotypes. When included with the 17 previously known haplotypes from S. fuelleborni, the cox1 sequences fell into four clusters, which had clear geographical structure. This is the first molecular confirmation of S. fuelleborni in long-tailed macaques in Thailand and Lao PDR. Clearly, awareness needs to be raised of the zoonotic potential of S. fuelleborni. A monitoring programme should be organized, taking into account the role of reservoir hosts (i.e. monkeys) in the natural background of human strongyloidiasis caused by S. fuelleborni.