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Collagen extraction depends on the state of bone preservation, and the acidity of Brazilian soils often prevents the use of this material for radiocarbon dating. When available, however, bone samples constitute very important chronological records for both archaeological sites and natural depositional sites of specific animals. The extraction of collagen was performed using two filters, the first aiming to remove insoluble contaminants, and the second, a vivaspin ultrafilter 30KD to retain large molecular weight materials. The collagen was liofilized and converted to CO2 by combustion in sealed quartz tubes with CuO and Ag. The graphite was produced by zinc reduction in independently sealed Pyrex™ tubes. In order to verify the accuracy of this protocol, we analyzed a modern bone and four previously dated fragments, including those from the Sixth International Radiocarbon Intercomparison (SIRI), and a fragment of human bone from the Amourins site, a Brazilian shellmound. The results for the known age material are in agreement with the expected and the studied sector of Amourins shellmound was dated 4100–3900 years cal BP from a chronological model performed with charcoal dating found in different stratigraphic layers. Samples were dated at the radiocarbon laboratory of Universidade Federal Fluminense (LAC-UFF) in Brazil.
We aimed at evaluating the association of maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status with offspring anthropometry and body composition. We also evaluated whether these associations were modified by gender, diet and physical activity and mediated by birth weight.
Birth cohort study.
Waist circumference was measured with an inextensible tape, and fat and lean mass were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for possible confounders and allele score of BMI. We carried out mediation analysis using G-formula.
In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all maternity hospitals in Pelotas (South Brazil) were visited daily and all live births whose families lived in the urban area of the city were evaluated. These subjects have been followed up at different ages.
Offspring of obese mothers had on average higher BMI, waist circumference and fat mass index than those of normal weight mothers, and these differences were higher among daughters. The magnitudes of the association were similar in the cohorts, except for height, where the association pattern was not clear. In the 1982 cohort, further adjustment for a BMI allele score had no material influence on the magnitude of the associations. Mediation analyses showed that birth weight captured part of this association.
Our findings suggest that maternal pre-pregnancy nutritional status is positively associated with offspring BMI and adiposity in offspring. And this association is higher among daughters whose mother was overweight or obese and, birth weight explains part of this association.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentative characteristics and chemical composition of cochineal nopal cactus silage additives with urea or Lactobacillus buchneri (LB), as well as the association of both additives in four storage times (7, 15, 60 and 120 days) and during aerobic stability, with evaluations at 0, 48 and 96 h. Four silages were used: no additive, addition of 2% urea, addition of LB and addition of 2% urea and LB. The study was divided into two experiments: the first experiment evaluated the silages at different storage times, and the second experiment evaluated the silages during the aerobic stability test. In both experiments, the experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (4 × 4 and 4 × 3) with three replicates per treatment. After the ensiling process, lactic acid bacteria predominated in all treatments. The concentration of lactic acid increased significantly from 60 days of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid varied significantly between the storage times only for the silages treated with urea and LB alone. The silage treated with urea maintained a constant pH value up to 120 days of storage. During the 96 h aerobic stability test, no breaking in the stability of silages was observed. The exclusive or associated use of urea and LB promotes improvement in the fermentative characteristics of cochineal nopal cactus silage, without major alterations in the chemical composition or interfering with the aerobic stability of the silages.
Our aim was to analyse the association of change patterns on TV-viewing and computer/tablet use and incidence of elevated consumption of ultra-processed food consumption and lower consumption of fruits and vegetables during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Data of 39 208 Brazilian adults from a Behaviour Web Survey were used. Unhealthy nutrition habits were eating fruits or vegetables for <5 d/week and ultra-processed food (sugary foods, snacks, ready-to-eat frozen foods and embedded foods) for ≥5 d/week. For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without unhealthy behaviour before the quarantine. We created four categories of change in TV-viewing and computer/tablet use, considering a cut-off point of 4 h/d for each behaviour (1 – consistently low, 2 – become low during the quarantine, 3 – become high during the quarantine or 4 – consistently high). Analyses were adjusted for sex, age group, highest academic achievement, per capita income, working status during the quarantine, skin colour and adherence to the quarantine.
Brazilian adults (nationally representative).
Logistic regression models revealed that high TV-viewing and computer/tablet use incidence were associated with higher odds for elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·37, 2·12; computer/tablet: OR 1·73; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·27) and low consumption of fruit and vegetables (TV-viewing: OR 1·70; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·23; computer/tablet: OR 1·53; 95 % CI 1·08, 2·17) incidence. Consistent high computer/tablet use also presented higher odds for incidence of elevated frequency of ultra-processed food consumption.
Participants with incidence of sedentary behaviours were also more likely to present incidence of unhealthy diet during the COVID-19 pandemic quarantine.
To evaluate the associations of pregestational BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum with four patterns of weight change during the first year after delivery: postpartum weight retention (PPWR), postpartum weight gain (PPWG), postpartum weight retention + gain (PPWR + WG) and return to pregestational weight.
In this secondary analysis of a prospective study, we categorised postpartum weight change into four patterns using pregestational weight and weights at 1, 6 and 12 months postpartum. We evaluated their associations with pregestational BMI, GWG and breast-feeding using multinomial logistic regression. Results are presented as relative risk ratios (RRR) and 95 % CI.
Women participating in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors pregnancy cohort.
Five hundred women were included (53 % of the cohort). Most women returned to their pregestational weight by 1 year postpartum (57 %); 8 % experienced PPWR, 14 % PPWG and 21 % PPWR + WG. Compared with normal weight, pregestational overweight (RRR 2·5, 95 % CI 1·3, 4·8) and obesity (RRR 2·2, 95 % CI 1·0, 4·7) were associated with a higher risk of PPWG. Exclusive breast-feeding, compared with no breast-feeding, was associated with a lower risk of PPWR (RRR 0·3, 95 % CI 0·1, 0·9). Excessive GWG, compared with adequate, was associated with a higher risk of PPWR (RRR 3·3, 95 % CI 1·6, 6·9) and PPWR + WG (RRR 2·4, 95 % CI 1·4, 4·2).
Targeting women with pregestational overweight or obesity and excessive GWG, as well as promoting breast-feeding, may impact the pattern of weight change after delivery and long-term women’s health.
Burden of care might be highly dependent of specific characteristics of the disease (Lee et al., 2019). Uncertainties remain about factors that influence burden of care in Parkinson Disease (PD).
To identify a list of ICF-related domains identified by caregivers of older patients with PD.
Caregivers of people with PD were recruited in Portugal Parkinson Foundation, if they take care of someone with PD older than 65 yrs, and for more than 6 hours/day. A focus group was video recorded, based on the following questions: Can you please tell us how did you spent your day before you're a caregiver; there are any differences in your daily routine now? How do you feel or think when you're caring for a relative? Can you tell us if there is any kind of daily activity more pleasant or more embarrassing? Verbal interactions during focus group were transcribed and codified using International Classification of Functioning and Disability (ICF) domains.
Seven caregivers (5 females; 40-73 yrs; 5 were spousal) were enrolled. Thirty-six caregivers’ references were about body functions and structures (91.67% - mental functions: “I feel tired…it is a constant monotony”); fifty-seven references were about activities and participation (“I need to assist him with bathing”; “when he wants to standing from his favourite chair, he always need help…and his body is very stiff”);eleven references were about environmental factors, mostly about medication and family/health professionals assistance.
Our results demonstrated that caregivers are worried about their mental health and routine preservation, which is in accordance with previous studies in this topic (Tessitore et al.,2018). However, new caregivers’ perceptions were found in our study, which are very specific domains in PD: body motion rigidity and medication for patients’ psychomotor agitation. A previous study stated that control of mental symptoms in PD are the most powerful predictors of caregivers' burden (Hooker et al., 2000), but do not consider the importance of Parkinson’s motor symptoms.
Burden of care in PD is mostly associated with the need of preservation in daily routines, but also with management of mental and motor symptoms in PD.
Literature describes breast milk as the best food for the newborn, recommending exclusive breastfeeding for up to 6 months of age. However, it is not available for more than 40% of children worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological models of 3-day early weaning were developed in rodents to investigate later outcomes related solely to this nutritional insult. Thus, the present work aimed to describe biometric, nutritional, biochemical, and cardiovascular outcomes in adult male rats submitted to 3-day early weaning achieved by maternal deprivation. This experimental model comprises not only nutritional insult but also emotional stress, simulating mother abandoning. Male offspring were physically separated from their mothers at 21st (control) or 18th (early weaning) postnatal day, receiving water/food ad libitum. Analysis performed at postnatal days 30, 90, 150, and 365 encompassed body mass and food intake monitoring and serum biochemistry determination. Further assessments included hemodynamic, echocardiographic, and cardiorespiratory evaluation. Early-weaned males presented higher body weight when compared to control as well as dyslipidemia, higher blood pressure, diastolic dysfunction, and cardiac hypertrophy in adult life. Animals early deprived of their mothers have also presented a worse performance on the maximal effort ergometer test. This work shows that 3-day early maternal deprivation favors the development of cardiovascular disease in male rats.
On coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) wards, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid was frequently detected on high-touch surfaces, floors, and socks inside patient rooms. Contamination of floors and shoes was common outside patient rooms on the COVID-19 wards but decreased after improvements in floor cleaning and disinfection were implemented.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially evolving turbulent planar jets of viscoelastic fluids described by the FENE-P model, such as those consisting of a Newtonian fluid solvent carrying long chain polymer molecules, are carried out in order to develop a theory for the far field of turbulent jets of viscoelastic fluids. New evolution relations for the jet shear-layer thickness
, centreline velocity
and maximum polymer stresses
are derived and validated by the new DNS data, yielding
, respectively, where
is the coordinate in the streamwise direction. It is shown that, compared with a classical (Newtonian) turbulent jet, the effect of the polymers is to reduce the spreading rate, centreline velocity decay, Reynolds stresses and viscous dissipation rate. The self-preserving character of the flow is analysed and it is shown that profiles of mean velocity, Reynolds stresses and polymer stresses are self-similar provided the proper scales are used in the normalisation of these quantities. A fundamental difference from the Newtonian jet in this regard is the necessity for two, instead of only one, different velocity and length scales to properly characterise the evolution of the turbulent flow. These extra velocity and length scales are directly related to a time scale associated with the characteristic fading memory property of viscoelastic fluids.
Litter size reduction can induce early overnourishment, being an attractive experimental model to study short- and long-term consequences of childhood obesity. Epidemiological data indicate sex differences regarding cardiometabolic disorders and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The present study aimed to describe biometric, nutritional and cardiovascular changes related to neonatal overweight promoted by litter size reduction in young and adult Wistar rats of both sexes. Litter adjustment to eight or four pups/mother (1:1 male-to-female ratio) gave, respectively, control and overweight groups. Body mass, food intake, haemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters and cardiorespiratory capacity were evaluated at postnatal days 30 and 150. Diminished litters were correlated with higher body mass and weight gain (12 %) during lactation, validating the experimental model of neonatal overweight. Soon after weaning male (16 %) and female (25 %) offspring of these litters presented a lower food intake than their respective control, without differences in body mass. Adult males from reduced litters presented higher abdominal circumference (7 %), systolic blood pressure (10 %), interventricular septum thickness (15 %) and relative wall thickness (15 %) compared with their respective control. Rats' performance on the maximal effort ergometer test was not affected by neonatal overweight. Data suggest the occurrence of catch-down growth and hypophagia in male and female rats submitted to neonatal overweight. However, only male rats presented haemodynamic and cardiac structural changes. These findings are crucial to personalised/gender medicine.
This study aimed to examine the effects of re-ensiling time and Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of sugarcane silages. The experiment was set up as a repeated measure design consisting of four air-exposure periods (EP)(0, 6, 12, and 24 h) microbial additive (A) (L. buchneri; or lack of there), with five replicates. Sugarcane was ground through a stationary forage chopper and ensiled in four plastic drums of 200-L capacity. After 210 days of storage, the drums were opened and half of the silage mass was treated with L. buchneri at the concentration of 105 cfu/g of forage. Subsequently, the silages were divided into stacks. The re-ensiling process was started immediately, at 0, 6, 12 and 24-hour intervals, by transferring the material to PVC mini-silos. Silos were opened after 120 days of re-ensiling. The use of L. buchneri reduced butyrate concentration but did not change ethanol or acetic acid concentrations and aerobic stability. An interaction effect between L. buchneri and re-ensiling time was observed for dry matter (DM) losses and composition. Lactobacillus buchneri is not effective in improving aerobic stability in re-ensiled sugarcane silages. However, less DM is lost in silages treated with L. buchneri and exposed to air for 24 h. Re-ensiling sugar cane in up to 24 h of exposure to air does not change final product quality.
Knowing how energy intake is partitioned between maintenance, growth and egg production (EP) of birds makes it possible to structure models and recommend energy intakes based on differences in the BW, weight gain (WG) and EP on commercial quail farms. This research was a dose-response study to re-evaluate the energy partition for Japanese quails in the EP phase, based on the dilution technique to modify the retained energy (RE) of the birds. A total of 300 VICAMI® Japanese quail, housed in climatic chambers, were used from 16 weeks of age, with averages for BW of 185 g and EP of 78%, for 10 weeks. To modify the RE in the bird’s body, a qualitative dilution of dietary energy was used. Ten treatments (metabolisable energy levels) were distributed in completely randomised units, with six replicates of five quails per experimental unit. Metabolisable energy intake (MEI), egg mass (EM) and RE were expressed in kJ/kg0.67. The utilisation efficiency (kt) was estimated from the relationship between RE and MEI. The metabolisable energy for maintenance was given by RE = 0. The net energy requirement for WG was obtained from the relationship between RE in the BW as a function of the BW. The utilisation efficiency for EP (ko) was obtained from the relationship between EM and RE corrected MEI for maintenance and WG. Based on these efficiencies, the requirements for WG and EM were calculated. The energy intake by Japanese quails was partitioned according to the model: MEI = 569.8 × BW0.67 + 22 × WG + 13 × EM. The current study provides procedures and methods designed for quails as well as a simple and flexible model that can be quickly adopted by technicians and poultry companies.
The farrowing process is one of the most energy-demanding activities for the modern hyperprolific sow. This study evaluated the effects of supply of energy on the expected date of farrowing on the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance during the first 24 h after birth. A total of 80 sows were used. The sows and their respective litters were considered as the experimental unit. On the expected day of farrowing, the sows were allocated to one of the following groups: sows that did not have access to feed from farrowing induction until the end of the farrowing process (CON, n = 40); sows fed 500 g of energetic supplement, which consisted of 250 g of the basal lactation diet plus 250 g of cane sugar, 18 h after farrowing induction (SUP, n = 40). The farrowing duration, farrowing assistance, birth interval, number of total born, stillborn and mummified piglets were recorded for each sow. Piglets were weighed individually at birth and 24 h later. The interval from birth to first suckle was evaluated individually for each piglet in 16 randomly selected litters (eight litters per treatment group). Blood glucose concentrations of six sows were measured shortly after expulsion of the first piglet. Farrowing duration, farrowing assistance and stillborn rate tended to be greater (P = 0.06, P = 0.09 and P = 0.07, respectively) in sows from the CON group compared to sows from the SUP group. However, there was no difference (P > 0.05) between the groups for birth interval. Colostrum intake was greater (P < 0.05) for piglets from the SUP group compared to piglets from the CON group. Additionally, BW gain of the piglets suckling the SUP group was greater (P < 0.05) than those suckling the CON group at 24 h after birth. The blood glucose concentrations during the expulsive stage of farrowing were greater (P < 0.05) in the SUP group than for sows from the CON group. In conclusion, supplying modern hyperprolific sows energy on the expected day of farrowing is a valuable nutritional intervention to improve the farrowing kinetics and piglets’ performance in early life.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.