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The current study aims to make an initial neuroimaging contribution to central implicit-explicit issues in second language (L2) acquisition by considering how implicit and explicit contexts mediate the neural representation of L2. Focusing on implicit contexts, the study employs a longitudinal design to examine the neural representation of L2 syntax and also considers how the neural circuits underlying L2 syntax vary among learners who exhibit different levels of performance on linguistic and cognitive tasks. Results suggest that when exposed to a L2 under an implicit context, some learners are able to quickly rely on neural circuits associated with first language grammar and procedural memory, whereas other learners increasingly use extralinguistic neural circuits related to control mechanisms to process syntax. Thus, there may be multiple ways in which L2 is represented neurally, at least when learned under implicit contexts.
Immobilisation for patients undergoing brain or head and neck radiotherapy is achieved using perspex or thermoplastic devices that require direct moulding to patient anatomy. The mould room visit can be distressing for patients and the shells do not always fit perfectly. In addition the mould room process can be time consuming. With recent developments in three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies comes the potential to generate a treatment shell directly from a computer model of a patient. Typically, a patient requiring radiotherapy treatment will have had a computed tomography (CT) scan and if a computer model of a shell could be obtained directly from the CT data it would reduce patient distress, reduce visits, obtain a close fitting shell and possibly enable the patient to start their radiotherapy treatment more quickly.
This paper focuses on the first stage of generating the front part of the shell and investigates the dosimetric properties of the materials to show the feasibility of 3D printer materials for the production of a radiotherapy treatment shell.
Materials and methods:
Computer algorithms are used to segment the surface of the patient’s head from CT and MRI datasets. After segmentation approaches are used to construct a 3D model suitable for printing on a 3D printer. To ensure that 3D printing is feasible the properties of a set of 3D printing materials are tested.
The majority of the possible candidate 3D printing materials tested result in very similar attenuation of a therapeutic radiotherapy beam as the Orfit soft-drape masks currently in use in many UK radiotherapy centres. The costs involved in 3D printing are reducing and the applications to medicine are becoming more widely adopted. In this paper we show that 3D printing of bespoke radiotherapy masks is feasible and warrants further investigation.
This study examined how individual differences in cognitive abilities account for variance in the attainment level of adult second language (L2) syntactic development. Participants completed assessments of declarative and procedural learning abilities. They subsequently learned an artificial L2 under implicit training conditions and received extended comprehension and production practice using the L2. Syntactic development was assessed at both early and late stages of acquisition. Results indicated positive relationships between declarative learning ability and syntactic development at early stages of acquisition and between procedural learning ability and development at later stages of acquisition. Individual differences in these memory abilities accounted for a large amount of variance at both stages of development. The findings are consistent with theoretical perspectives of L2 that posit different roles for these memory systems at different stages of development, and suggest that declarative and procedural memory learning abilities may predict L2 grammatical development, at least for implicitly trained learners.
At Sellafield, the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of solids from the base of the highly active waste storage tanks, in preparation for decommissioning, will result in a high molybdenum stream which will be vitrified using the current Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP). In order to minimise the number of containers required for POCO, the high molybdenum feed could be co-vitrified by addition to reprocessing waste, using the borosilicate glass formulation currently utilised on WVP. Co-vitrification of high molybdenum feeds has been carried out using non-active simulants, both in the laboratory and on the Vitrification Test Rig (VTR) which is a full scale working replica of a WVP processing line.
In addition, a new borosilicate glass formulation containing calcium has been developed by NNL which allows a higher incorporation of molybdenum through the formation of a durable CaMoO4 phase, after the solubility limit of molybdenum in the glass has been reached. Vitrification of the high molybdenum feed in the presence of varying quantities of reprocessing waste liquor using the new glass formulation has been carried out in the laboratory. Up to ∼10 wt% MoO3 could be incorporated without any detrimental phase separation in the product glass, but increasing the fraction of reprocessing waste was found to decrease the MoO3 incorporation. Soxhlet and static powder leach tests have been performed to assess the durability of the glass products. This paper discusses the results of the vitrification of high molybdenum feeds in the presence of reprocessing liquor in both the borosilicate glass formulation currently utilised on WVP and the modified formulation which contain calcium.
This manuscript develops the concept of organizational virtue orientation (OVO) and examines differences between family and non-family firms on the six organizational virtue dimensions of Integrity, Empathy, Warmth, Courage, Conscientiousness, and Zeal. Using content analysis of shareholder letters from S&P 500 companies, our analyses find that there are significant differences between family and non-family firms in their espoused OVO, with family firms generally being higher. Specifically, family firms were significantly higher on the dimensions of Empathy, Warmth, and Zeal, but lower on Courage. Based on these findings we further develop the OVO concept through the discussion of implications and areas for future research.
The Gaia pixel-level data simulator GIBIS (Gaia Instrument and Basic Image Simulator,
Babusiaux (2005)) provides detailed artificial data for all three instruments on-board the
Gaia spacecraft. This data is used for the preparation of procedures required for the
analysis of real Gaia data to come during the mission. Among the effects that strongly
affect all Gaia data, that therefore have to be modelled with GIBIS, is charge transfer
inefficiency (CTI). CTI, caused by radiation-induced microscopic defects in the CCD
detectors, becomes manifest in a distortion of the line spread functions of observed
objects, as well as in a loss of photo-generated charges inside the window allocated to
each observed source. It affects the astrometric, photometric, and spectroscopic accuracy
of the data. The CTI effects on a particular observation depend on observations done
before, on CCD operations such as gate activity and charge injections, and on physical
effects such as the sky background brightness and cosmic ray events in the detectors. In
this paper, an approach for the simulation of CTI with GIBIS is presented and the
influence of the sky background brightness and cosmic ray events of CTI is discussed in
The redox state of Mo in glasses containing simplified simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) streams has been investigated using Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Melts performed in highly oxidising or neutral (air) atmospheres contained Mo6+, but our study indicates that the Mo can be at least partially reduced to Mo4+ or Mo3+ by melting in a reducing atmosphere. The implications for glasses containing a full simulated HLW stream are that the formation of detrimental crystalline phases containing Mo6+ upon heat treatment may be avoided by reducing the oxidation state of Mo during melting.
A systematic review of the evidence pertaining to methylprednisolone infusion following acute spinal cord injury was conducted in order to address the persistent confusion about the utility of this treatment.
A committee of neurosurgical and orthopedic spine specialists, emergency physicians and physiatrists engaged in active clinical practice conducted an electronic database search for articles about acute spinal cord injuries and steroids, from January 1, 1966 to April 2001, that was supplemented by a manual search of reference lists, requests for unpublished additional information, translations of foreign language references and study protocols from the author of a Cochrane systematic review and Pharmacia Inc. The evidence was graded and recommendations were developed by consensus.
One hundred and fifty-seven citations that specifically addressed spinal cord injuries and methylprednisolone were retrieved and 64 reviewed. Recommendations were based on one Cochrane systematic review, six Level I clinical studies and seven Level II clinical studies that addressed changes in neurological function and complications following methylprednisolone therapy.
There is insufficient evidence to support the use of high-dose methylprednisolone within eight hours following an acute closed spinal cord injury as a treatment standard or as a guideline for treatment. Methylprednisolone, prescribed as a bolus intravenous infusion of 30 mg per kilogram of body weight over fifteen minutes within eight hours of closed spinal cord injury, followed 45 minutes later by an infusion of 5.4 mg per kilogram of bodyweight per hour for 23 hours, is only a treatment option for which there is weak clinical evidence (Level I- to II-1). There is insufficient evidence to support extending methylprednisolone infusion beyond 23 hours if chosen as a treatment option.
The composition and structure of the mixed metal molybdates that can form in simulated high level nuclear waste (HLW) glass melts have been studied. It was found that molybdates of a tetragonal scheelite type were formed upon heat treatment of the simulated glass samples (representative of the slow cools experienced by the real vitrified product), and that these compounds are capable of incorporating the majority of the mono, di, and trivalent cations that would be present in a real HLW glass. In addition, it has been shown that altering the redox conditions prevailing upon melting can promote or suppress crystallisation in simplified model waste glasses that contain molybdenum. Experiments to investigate the effect of redox conditions during melting of simulated HLW glass on molybdate formation are also reported.
Spotlight transect surveys with distance sampling were used to estimate spring (pre-breeding) and autumn (post-production) fox Vulpes vulpes densities in three contrasting rural areas of Britain during 1995–97. This was the first attempt in Britain to measure and compare fox densities over large geographical areas (630–1460 km2). Mean post-production fox abundance was estimated to be 0.90/km2, 2.62/km2, and 0.59/km2 in mid-Wales, the east Midlands and East Anglia, falling to pre-breeding levels of 0.41/km2, 1.17/km2, and 0.16//km2 in spring. As relative measures of regional density, these estimates are strongly supported by independent indices of fox abundance, and by the simultaneous survey of two sympatric species, the badger Meles meles and brown hare Lepus europaeus, which demonstrate the absence of any terrain-related bias. Absolute abundance is less easy to verify, but estimates of spring density based on breeding earth censuses support the transect surveys. For two of the three regions, fox density was close to levels predicted by extrapolation on the basis of landscape, but in the third region (East Anglia), fox density was substantially below prediction. Thus, results failed to support a hypothesis that fox abundance can be predicted solely on the basis of landscape and its close correlates. Rather, they favoured a competing hypothesis that an independent factor determines fox abundance in some regions. A likely factor is culling by man.
During the past decade there has been considerable progress in the design of new organic materials for optical power limiting (OPL) applications. Among the more promising of the new material approaches are reverse saturable absorbers (RSAs) which derive their optical limiting capability from the photogeneration of highly absorbing transient excited states. Most of the previous research in this field has focused on excited state absorption from singlet or triplet states whose cross-sections are greater than the original S0 – S1 transition- However, other transient states, such as polaronic radical ions or bipolaronic diions, formed by photo-induced electron transfer, are attractive alternatives. We have initiated studies to determine if these transient charge states can be photo-generated efficiently, and if their excited states absorption and lifetimes are acceptable for current optical power limiting requirements.
The Ce3+ ↔ Ce4+ redox process in automotive three-way catalysts such as Ce-ZrO2/Pt provides an essential mechanism to oxygen storage/release under dynamic air-to-fuel ratio cycling. Such a function requires a metal-support interaction which is not completely understood. We have carried out an in-situ neutron powder diffraction study to monitor the crystal structures (a mixture of a major tetragonal and a minor monoclinic phase) of 10mol% Ce-doped ZrO2 with and without Pt (1wt%) impregnation under oxidizing and reducing conditions over the temperature range of 25°-700°C. The samples were heated first in flowing 2%O2/Ar from room temperature to 400°C and then in 1%CO/Ar to about 700°C. A discontinued increase of the tetragonal unit-cell volume, a decrease of tetragonality (c/a), and a change of color from light yellow to gray when changing from oxidizing to reducing atmosphere were observed only in the sample containing Pt. This result supports the model which assumes the formation of oxygen vacancies initially near the Pt atoms. As more Ce ions are reduced from 4+ to 3+ oxidation states at high temperatures, oxygen vacancies migrate to the bulk of the oxide particles.
A three-part study including (a) descriptive analysis of disposal-related injuries in a l-year period, (b) 4:l matched case-control study of nurses injured while using sharps disposal containers, and (c) survey to solicit opinions of users of containers.
An 1,181-bed teaching hospital in New York City.
For epidemiologic analyses, persons with self-reported injuries identified via New York State and Occupational Safety and Health Administration forms and control nurses without self-reported injuries. For survey, convenience sample of hospital nurses, laboratory workers, and maintenance workers.
Main Outcome Measures:
Circumstances of injuries determined by study questionnaires. Employee opinions obtained by questionnaires and discussions during small group sessions.
Three hundred sixty-one persons reported sharps injuries, of whom 72 (20%) had disposal-related injuries. Persons with disposal-related injuries included four hospital visitors and one patient. Of 67 disposal-related injuries among employees, 25 (37%) directly involved use of a sharps disposal container. Significant risk factors for injury included container height greater than 4 ft above the floor, distance less than 5 ft from site of sharp object use to nearest container, and lack of attendance at universal precautions inservice classes. Survey groups involved 69 employees who identified a variety of preferred features for sharps disposal containers.
Disposal of sharp objects is an important cause of sharps injuries. Ergonomic factors, worker education, and appropriate container design should be considered in injury prevention strategies. Relevant guidelines and regulations are lacking and are needed.
The light and spectrum of the magnetic, chemically peculiar Be star σ Orionis E (=HD 37479) vary with the rotational period of 1.19081 d because of the effects of inhomogeneities in the photosphere and circumstellar matter (Walborn and Hesser 1976, Landstreet and Borra 1978, Hunger 1974). In this paper, we describe a model for the distribution of the Hα emitting material in the magnetosphere based on analysis of 24 high quality spectra covering the entire rotation period and published data from other sources.
Two basic types of cholinergic receptor have been identified in nervous systems: nicotinic and muscarinic. In the mammalian visual system, the balance of evidence suggests that nicotinic activity is associated primarily with transmission and processing of information while muscarinic activity reflects modulatory influences arising in the brainstem and basal forebrain. We have measured contrast sensitivity functions using a two-alternative forced-choice procedure in young human volunteers with and without administration of nicotine (1.5 mg by buccal absorption) or the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (1.2 mg orally). Scopolamine elevates contrast-detection thresholds uniformly at all spatial frequencies, consistent with blocking of a nonspecific arousal system. Nicotine, in contrast, improves sensitivity at low spatial frequencies (below about 4 cycle/deg); at higher spatial frequencies sensitivity is, if anything, impaired. Using counterphase gratings, we find that scopolamine elevates thresholds uniformly at all temporal frequencies. Nicotine lowers thresholds at high but not low temporal frequencies. The results obtained with nicotine suggest that contrast sensitivity reflects the activity of two mechanisms, or sets of spatiotemporal filters, that are pharmacologically distinct, the contrast sensitivity function reflecting the envelope of their sensitivities.
Thermoluminescence (TL) age determinations of alluvial sediments in the tropics are evaluated by comparison with U/Th age determinations of pedogenic accumulations in the alluvium of the lower Gilbert River, a large fan delta in the wet-dry tropics of northern Queensland, Australia. This study extends U/Th dating by applying it not only to calcretes, but also to Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide/oxide accumulations. While a direct correlation cannot be made between U/Th dates from secondary minerals and TL dates from the host sediments, both sets of data show broad consistency. In addition to providing a minima for acceptable TL ages, U/Th dates are useful for determining the chronology of pedogenesis/diagenesis. They show that calcretes and ferricretes have formed under similar climatic conditions in the wet-dry tropics of northern Australia during the late pleistocene. Beneath about 5–12 m the Gilbert fan delta consists of an extensive sand body older than 85,000 yr and probably about 120,000 yr in age, representative of a period of major fluvial activity not repeated since this time. Above are muds and fine sandy muds that extend uninterrupted to the present surface except in the downstream fan where they are bisected by a thin unit of medium sand that TL dates at 40,000–50,000 yr B.P. A system of sandy distributary channels over the fan surface represents an early Holocene fluvial phase probably more active than at present.