Currently listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the Straw-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus zeylanicus is being driven towards extinction throughout most of its range by unregulated illegal trade supplying the demand for songbirds. We conducted surveys of bird markets in North and West Kalimantan, and Central, West and East Java between July 2014 and June 2015, and observed a total of 71 Straw-headed Bulbuls in 11 markets in eight cities. Comparing our data with the literature, we found that as numbers in markets are decreasing, prices are increasing to over 20 times the prices recorded in 1987, indicating that numbers in the wild are diminishing. This is corroborated by widespread extirpations throughout their range and reports from traders that Straw-headed Bulbuls are increasingly difficult to locate, while demand from consumers remains high. Concerted efforts from a variety of stakeholders are urgently needed to prevent the extinction of this species in the wild. We recommend that the Straw-headed Bulbul be included in Indonesia’s list of protected species, considered for uplisting to Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List and listed in Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). We also urge the Indonesian Government to effectively enforce existing laws, targeting the open bird markets to shut down the trade in this and other threatened species.