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In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
The apparatus of Vogelgnathus simplicatus (Rhodes, Austin, and Druce, 1969) is reconstructed from discrete elements from a sample of limited diversity from the Limerick Province (Ireland). The apparatus is typical of the order Ozarkodinida and the P1 element was previously placed within Gnathodus. Here we assign it to Vogelgnathus by applying a multielemental concept rather than using P1 element morphology. The holotype and paratypes are re-illustrated and the species distribution revised based on published data. Vogelgnathus simplicatus ranges from the late Tournaisian to the early Viséan (Mississippian, Carboniferous), with common occurrences relating to the growth of Waulsortian bank complexes in a high-stand sea-level along the southern and western margins of the Laurussian landmass (Belgium, the British Isles, the Republic of Ireland, and USA). Vogelgnathus simplicatus appears to represent the rootstock from which deep-water and shallow-water Viséan species of Vogelgnathus evolved in the Mississippian.
Twenty-seven species and two subspecies of Ficus are reported from one study site in central Africa. Characters for identification are explained. An identification key, illustrations, descriptions and habitats are provided. The species-level diversity of Ficus in tropical forests is discussed.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
Zircon from two types of orthogneisses (inheritance-rich and inheritance-poor) from Sierra Nevada (Betic Cordillera, Spain) was investigated by integrating U–Pb geochronology, cathodoluminescence and back-scattered SEM imaging, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses and Raman spectroscopy to examine the conditions of magmatic zircon growth and the variable extent and mechanisms of the Alpine modifications. Zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss consists of two main domains: inherited (Neoproterozoic-to-Early Paleozoic and Devonian) cores and magmatic overgrowths, which provided 206Pb/238U concordant ages of 286 ± 3 Ma. In inheritance-poor gneiss, zircons consist of magmatic cores and very altered rims defining a discordia with an upper intercept with the Concordia at 287 + 21 –22 Ma and a lower intercept at 20.8 + 48.6 –20.8 Ma. Magmatic domains of zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss have lower rare-earth element (REE) contents than magmatic domains from inheritance-poor gneiss, reflecting the less evolved nature of the melt. Altered domains in zircon from inheritance-poor gneisss how greater U concentrations, lower REE concentrations and lower Th/U ratios relative to the cores, interpreted as representing Pb loss from the U-rich magmatic domains during the Alpine event. Morphological changes within single grains and between populations reflects the evolution during magmatic cooling. We show that, whereas classic methods allow two different interpretations for the geodynamic setting of the two types of gneisses, a complete study of composition, morphology and structure of zircon can help to decide that a model based on a common source for the granitic melt better fits the zircon characteristics than a model based on melts generated in two different geotectonic settings.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1–4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.
High quality AlN layers with full widths at half maximum values of 10 arcmin and average surface roughness (rms) of 48Å were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si(111) substrates. A systematic study and optimization of the growth conditions was performed in order to use these AlN layers as buffers in the growth of GaN films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to determine the surface and structural quality of the layers. Best AlN films were obtained at high substrate temperatures (Tsubs>900°C) and III/V ratios close to stoichiometry. Growth conditions with III/V ratios beyond stoichiometry (Al-rich) did not further improve the crystal quality. In these cases a higher substrate temperature is needed to prevent condensation of Al on the surface. GaN films with full width at half maximum of 10 arcmin and improved optical properties were grown on top of optimized AlN buffer layers.
In this work we review the aggregation of variables method for discrete dynamical
systems. These methods consist of describing the asymptotic behaviour of a complex system
involving many coupled variables through the asymptotic behaviour of a reduced system
formulated in terms of a few global variables. We consider population dynamics models
including two processes acting at different time scales. Each process has associated a map
describing its effect along its specific time unit. The discrete system encompassing both
processes is expressed in the slow time scale composing the map associated to the slow one
and the k-th iterate of the map associated to the fast one. In the linear case a result is
stated showing the relationship between the corresponding asymptotic elements of both
systems, initial and reduced. In the nonlinear case, the reduction result establishes the
existence, stability and basins of attraction of steady states and periodic solutions of
the original system with the help of the same elements of the corresponding reduced
system. Several models looking over the main applications of the method to populations
dynamics are collected to illustrate the general results.
Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes livestock health and productivity and both may in part be mediated by reduced intestinal integrity. Dietary zinc improves a variety of bowel diseases, which are characterized by increased intestinal permeability. Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of supplemental zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) on intestinal integrity in heat-stressed growing pigs. Crossbred gilts (43±6 kg BW) were ad libitum fed one of three diets: (1) control (ZnC; 120 ppm Zn as ZnSO4; n=13), (2) control+100 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn220; containing a total of 220 ppm Zn; n=14), and (3) control+200 ppm Zn as ZnAA (Zn320; containing a total of 320 ppm Zn; n=16). After 25 days on their respective diets, all pigs were exposed to constant HS conditions (36°C, ∼50% humidity) for either 1 or 7 days. At the end of the environmental exposure, pigs were euthanized and blood and intestinal tissues were harvested immediately after sacrifice. As expected, HS increased rectal temperature (P⩽0.01; 40.23°C v. 38.93°C) and respiratory rate (P⩽0.01; 113 v. 36 bpm). Pigs receiving ZnAA tended to have increased rectal temperature (P=0.07; +0.27°C) compared with ZnC-fed pigs. HS markedly reduced feed intake (FI; P⩽0.01; 59%) and caused BW loss (2.10 kg), but neither variable was affected by dietary treatment. Fresh intestinal segments were assessed ex vivo for intestinal integrity. As HS progressed from days 1 to 7, both ileal and colonic transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) decreased (P⩽0.05; 34% and 22%, respectively). This was mirrored by an increase in ileal and colonic permeability to the macromolecule dextran (P⩽0.01; 13- and 56-fold, respectively), and increased colonic lipopolysaccharide permeability (P⩽0.05; threefold) with time. There was a quadratic response (P⩽0.05) to increasing ZnAA on ileal TER, as it was improved (P⩽0.05; 56%) in Zn220-fed pigs compared with ZnC. This study demonstrates that HS progressively compromises the intestinal barrier and supplementing ZnAA at the appropriate dose can improve aspects of small intestinal integrity during severe HS.
The polymorphism of six milk protein loci in five Cuban breeds was investigated by means of DNA analysis by combined techniques of PCR and amplification created restriction sites (ACRS), the method of allele-specific oligonucleotides (ASO), and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Allele frequencies of loci CASA1, CASAB, CASA2, CASK, LAA and LGB were estimated in the five breeds (N = 324), the number of individuals per population being: Siboney de Cuba (SC = 85), Cuban Creole (CC = 60) Cuban Zebu (ZC = 61), Cuba Mambí (MC = 60) and Taíno of Cuba (TC = 58). Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium was estimated for each locus in each population, showing that all the populations have at least one locus deviated from this condition of equilibrium and always through heterozygote excess. Alleles CASA1C and LAAA were identified in the CC and CT breeds, showing the presence of Bos indicus genes in these populations. An increase of heterozygosis is observed in these populations, and genotype frequencies in each population allow differentiation of these from those which originated them.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
Twenty-five children with specific language impairment (SLI; age 5 years, 3 months [5;3]–8;2), 50 typically developing children (3;3–8;2), and 31 normal adults participated in three eye-tracking experiments of spoken language comprehension that were designed to investigate the use of verb information during real-time sentence comprehension in Spanish. In Experiment 1, participants heard sentences like El niño recorta con cuidado el papel (The boy trims carefully the paper) in the presence of four depicted objects, only one of which satisfied the semantic restrictions of the verb recorta (e.g., paper, clock, fox, and dinosaur). Eye movements revealed that children with SLI, like other groups, were able to recognize and retrieve the meaning of the verb rapidly enough to anticipate the upcoming semantically appropriate referent, prior to actually hearing the noun phrase el papel (the paper). Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that for all groups of participants, anticipatory eye movements were also modulated by the semantic fit of the object serving as the patient/theme of the verb. Relatively fine-grained semantic information of a verb was computed fast enough even by children with SLI to result in anticipatory eye movements to semantically appropriate referents. Children with SLI did differ from age-matched controls, but only slightly in terms of overall anticipatory looking at target objects; the time course of looking between these groups was quite similar. In addition, no differences were found between children with SLI and control children matched for mean length of utterance. Implications for theories that characterize SLI are discussed.
Diamond and coesite occur in granulites of the Internal Zone of the Rif belt in northwest Africa. Diamond, identified by optical microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, Raman spectroscopy, cathodoluminescence and microstructural electron backscattered diffraction, is present as inclusions up to 20 μm across in garnet, K-feldspar, coesite relics and quartz. Thermobarometric estimates yield P >4.3 GPa and T >1100°C, which corresponds to a depth of formation >150 km. The estimates suggest that the diamond-bearing peridotites and adjacent crustal rocks experienced similar P–T conditions. If this is correct, there is an old (undated) core in the Betic–Rif cordillera and the current models of the tectonic evolution of the area, which are based on 'full Alpine' evolution, must be revised. This discovery provides further valuable information about the complex geotectonic environment of the southeast Spain and north Moroccan collisional orogen.
The influence of the substrate on composition and CuPt-type spontaneous order of MOVPE lattice matched InGaP/GaAs layers was studied. The study was carried out by microRaman and microphotoluminescence. The order was determined by the band gap, while the Raman parameters were also contributed by the surface topography that was also related to the type of substrate. The spontaneous order increases with Si- doping of the substrates. Doping the layers with Zn randomises the alloy.
Morphologic and structural changes induced by UV pulsed laser beams on GaAs are studied by means of surface inspection (optical interferometry) and MicroRaman spectroscopy. Crystal order and chemical composition (dopant distribution ) are shown to be changed by the ablation.
LiNbO3 is a relevant material to prepare a number of electrooptic (bulk and waveguide) devices. Moreover, its photorefractive (PR) behavior is also potentially useful for optoelectronic applications such as holographic storage and coherent optical amplification. For a full understanding and optimization of the PR effect, the lattice location and valence state of the active impurities is essential, since they determine the ionization and trapping capabilities for free carriers. So far, the information obtained with spectroscopic techniques (EPR, ENDOR, Mossbauer, optical) is not conclusive, except manganese and possible iron.