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Throughout the history of Christianity, the four canonical gospels have proven to be vital resources for Christian thought and practice, and an inspiration for humanistic culture generally. Indeed, the gospels and their interpretation have had a profound impact on theology, philosophy, the sciences, ethics, worship, architecture, and the creative arts. Building on the strengths of the first edition, The Cambridge Companion to the Gospels, 2nd edition, takes account of new directions in gospels research, notably: the milieu in which the gospels were read, copied, and circulated alongside non-canonical gospels; renewed debates about the sources of the gospels and their interrelations; how central gospel themes are illuminated by a variety of critical approaches and theological readings; the reception of the gospels over time and in various media; and how the gospels give insight into the human condition.
This article emerged as the human species collectively have been experiencing the worst global pandemic in a century. With a long view of the ecological, economic, social, and political factors that promote the emergence and spread of infectious disease, archaeologists are well positioned to examine the antecedents of the present crisis. In this article, we bring together a variety of perspectives on the issues surrounding the emergence, spread, and effects of disease in both the Americas and Afro-Eurasian contexts. Recognizing that human populations most severely impacted by COVID-19 are typically descendants of marginalized groups, we investigate pre- and postcontact disease vectors among Indigenous and Black communities in North America, outlining the systemic impacts of diseases and the conditions that exacerbate their spread. We look at how material culture both reflects and changes as a result of social transformations brought about by disease, the insights that paleopathology provides about the ancient human condition, and the impacts of ancient globalization on the spread of disease worldwide. By understanding the differential effects of past epidemics on diverse communities and contributing to more equitable sociopolitical agendas, archaeology can play a key role in helping to pursue a more just future.
The Late Triassic fauna of the Lossiemouth Sandstone Formation (LSF) from the Elgin area, Scotland, has been pivotal in expanding our understanding of Triassic terrestrial tetrapods. Frustratingly, due to their odd preservation, interpretations of the Elgin Triassic specimens have relied on destructive moulding techniques, which only provide incomplete, and potentially distorted, information. Here, we show that micro-computed tomography (μCT) could revitalise the study of this important assemblage. We describe a long-neglected specimen that was originally identified as a pseudosuchian archosaur, Ornithosuchus woodwardi. μCT scans revealed dozens of bones belonging to at least two taxa: a small-bodied pseudosuchian and a specimen of the procolophonid Leptopleuron lacertinum. The pseudosuchian skeleton possesses a combination of characters that are unique to the clade Erpetosuchidae. As a basis for investigating the phylogenetic relationships of this new specimen, we reviewed the anatomy, taxonomy and systematics of other erpetosuchid specimens from the LSF (all previously referred to Erpetosuchus). Unfortunately, due to the differing representation of the skeleton in the available Erpetosuchus specimens, we cannot determine whether the erpetosuchid specimen we describe here belongs to Erpetosuchus granti (to which we show it is closely related) or if it represents a distinct new taxon. Nevertheless, our results shed light on rarely preserved details of erpetosuchid anatomy. Finally, the unanticipated new information extracted from both previously studied and neglected specimens suggests that fossil remains may be much more widely distributed in the Elgin quarries than previously recognised, and that the richness of the LSF might have been underestimated.
Observations of teleseismic earthquakes using broadband seismometers on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) must contend with environmental and structural processes that do not exist for land-sited seismometers. Important considerations are: (1) a broadband, multi-mode ambient wavefield excited by ocean gravity wave interactions with the ice shelf; (2) body wave reverberations produced by seismic impedance contrasts at the ice/water and water/seafloor interfaces and (3) decoupling of the solid Earth horizontal wavefield by the sub-shelf water column. We analyze seasonal and geographic variations in signal-to-noise ratios for teleseismic P-wave (0.5–2.0 s), S-wave (10–15 s) and surface wave (13–25 s) arrivals relative to the RIS noise field. We use ice and water layer reverberations generated by teleseismic P-waves to accurately estimate the sub-station thicknesses of these layers. We present observations consistent with the theoretically predicted transition of the water column from compressible to incompressible mechanics, relevant for vertically incident solid Earth waves with periods longer than 3 s. Finally, we observe symmetric-mode Lamb waves generated by teleseismic S-waves incident on the grounding zones. Despite their complexity, we conclude that teleseismic coda can be utilized for passive imaging of sub-shelf Earth structure, although longer deployments relative to conventional land-sited seismometers will be necessary to acquire adequate data.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in human hospitals. The Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) made CRE reportable in April 2018. In May 2019, the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital (MJRVH) reported an NDM-5 Escherichia coli cluster in companion animals to the PDPH. In total, 15 infected animals (14 dogs and 1 cat) were reported between July 2018 and June 2019, with no new infections after June 2019. Limited literature is available on the prevalence of CRE in companion animals, and recommendations for dealing with CRE infections currently target human healthcare settings. Methods: A collaborative containment response included assessing interspecies transmission to veterinary staff and a comprehensive evaluation of the infection control program at MJRVH. MJRVH notified all owners of affected animals verbally and via notification letters with PDPH recommendations for CRE colonization screening of high-risk individuals. CRE screening of exposed high-risk employees was conducted by the University of Pennsylvania Occupational Health service and PDPH. Human rectal swabs were analyzed at the Antibiotic Resistance Laboratory Network (ARLN) Maryland Laboratory. PDPH were invited to conduct an onsite infection control assessment and to suggest improvements. Results: No pet owners self-identified in high-risk groups to be screened. In total, 10 high-risk staff were screened, and no colonized individuals were detected. Recommendations made by the PDPH to MJRVH included improvement of infection prevention and control policies (eg, consolidation of the infection control manual and identification of lead staff member), improvement in hand hygiene (HH) compliance (eg, increasing amount of HH supplies), improvement of environment of care (eg, decluttering and evaluation of mulched animal relief area), and improvement of respiratory care processes (eg, standardization of care policies). MJRVH made substantial improvements across recommendation areas including revision of infection control manual, creation of a full-time infection preventionist position, individual alcohol hand sanitizers for patient cages, and environmental decluttering and decontamination. PDPH and MJRVH maintained frequent communication about infection control improvements. Conclusions: No positive transmission to high-risk staff members suggest that, like in human healthcare facilities, transmission of CRE to caretakers may not be a common event. Stronger communication and collaboration is required from Departments of Public Health (DPH) to the veterinary profession regarding the reporting requirements of emerging pathogens such as CRE. Veterinary facilities should view DPH as a valuable resource for recommendations to fill in gaps that exist in infection control “best practices,” particularly for novel pathogens in veterinary settings.
Disclosures: Jane M. Gould reports that her spouse receives salary from Incyte.
Background: The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) in companion animals will be a game changer for infection prevention and control strategies in veterinary and human healthcare facilities. CRE have emerged as an important cause of human healthcare-associated infections and are a major clinical and public health problem. Although reports of CRE from animals are still very rare, they have been documented in China, Europe, and the United States. Methods: In April 2019, a passive veterinary surveillance system identified the blaNDM-5 gene in an E. coli isolated from a dog in Philadelphia in July 2018. CRE are reportable to the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH), and in May 2019, the Matthew J. Ryan Veterinary Hospital at the University of Pennsylvania (MJRVH) reported a cluster of carbapenem-resistant E. coli (CR-E. coli) isolated from 14 animals to the PDHP. This cluster of 17 isolates, that all contained a blaNDM-5 gene, was the first report of a CR-E. coli outbreak at a US veterinary facility. The first isolate, E. coli 24213-18, was sequenced on the Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) Sequel Sequencer and has been uploaded to GenBank. Whole genome sequencing was performed on all 17 isolates using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Antimicrobial resistance genes were identified from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Pathogen Detection Isolates Browser using AMRFinder. Results: PacBio sequencing confirmed E. coli ST167 and identified a circular IncFII plasmid of 139,547 bp that contained the blaNDM-5 gene, along with many additional resistance genes. In June 2019, a retrospective review of hospital records was completed and showed that, from July 2018, 17 CR- E. coli were isolated from 14 animals. Conclusions: Control of CRE infections in human healthcare settings is challenging because the organisms colonize the gastrointestinal tract and can go undetected. The same issue is to be expected with companion animals. Healthcare-associated spread of CRE E. coli in a veterinary facility emphasizes the importance of rapidly identifying and characterizing carbapenem-resistant isolates from animals. Methods to control the spread of CRE in veterinary medical settings have not yet been studied, and related investigations will be critically important to limit the transmission of these pathogens in animal populations. The risk of transmission of CRE from animals to people is currently poorly understood. CRE will be a major challenge across all health fields as these organisms become more prevalent in the community. It is likely that a ‘One Health’ approach to surveillance, infection prevention, and antimicrobial stewardship will be required to limit the spread and potential global dominance of CRE.
The rate at which young children are directly spoken to varies due to many factors, including (a) caregiver ideas about children as conversational partners and (b) the organization of everyday life. Prior work suggests cross-cultural variation in rates of child-directed speech is due to the former factor, but has been fraught with confounds in comparing postindustrial and subsistence farming communities. We investigate the daylong language environments of children (0;0–3;0) on Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea, a small-scale traditional community where prior ethnographic study demonstrated contingency-seeking child interaction styles. In fact, children were infrequently directly addressed and linguistic input rate was primarily affected by situational factors, though children's vocalization maturity showed no developmental delay. We compare the input characteristics between this community and a Tseltal Mayan one in which near-parallel methods produced comparable results, then briefly discuss the models and mechanisms for learning best supported by our findings.
Residence capacity can be defined as the capacity someone requires to decide where to live. Its assessment is important in a variety of mental disorders. In this chapter we shall mainly focus on dementia, but the nature and requirements for assessment would largely be similar across all conditions. We shall also focus on the relevant law as it pertains to England and Wales, that is, the Mental Capacity Act (MCA), although, again, the nature of residence capacity and the principles for its assessment remain similar across jurisdictions.
Dinosaur body fossil material is rare in Scotland, previously known almost exclusively from the Great Estuarine Group on the Isle of Skye. We report the first unequivocal dinosaur fossil from the Isle of Eigg, belonging to a Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) taxon of uncertain affinity. The limb bone NMS G.2020.10.1 is incomplete, but through a combination of anatomical comparison and osteohistology, we determine it most likely represents a stegosaur fibula. The overall proportions and cross-sectional geometry are similar to the fibulae of thyreophorans. Examination of the bone microstructure reveals a high degree of remodelling and randomly distributed longitudinal canals in the remaining primary cortical bone. This contrasts with the histological signal expected of theropod or sauropod limb bones, but is consistent with previous studies of thyreophorans, specifically stegosaurs. Previous dinosaur material from Skye and broadly contemporaneous sites in England belongs to this group, including Loricatosaurus and Sarcolestes and a number of indeterminate stegosaur specimens. Theropods such as Megalosaurus and sauropods such as Cetiosaurus are also known from these localities. Although we find strong evidence for a stegosaur affinity, diagnostic features are not observed on NMS G.2020.10.1, preventing us from referring it to any known genera. The presence of this large-bodied stegosaur on Eigg adds a significant new datapoint for dinosaur distribution in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland.
Seabirds are one of the most threatened avian taxa and are hence a high conservation priority. Managing seabirds is challenging, requiring conservation actions at sea (e.g. Marine Protected Areas - MPAs) and on land (e.g. protection of breeding sites). Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) have been successfully used to identify sites of global importance for the conservation of bird populations, including breeding seabirds. The challenge of identifying suitable IBAs for tropical seabirds is exacerbated by high levels of dispersal, aseasonal and asynchronous breeding. The western Indian Ocean supports ~19 million breeding seabirds of 30 species, making it one of the most significant tropical seabird assemblages in the world. Within this is the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), encompassing 55 islands of the Chagos Archipelago, which supports 18 species of breeding seabird and one of the world’s largest no-take MPAs. Between January and March in 1975 and 1996, eight and 45 islands respectively were surveyed for seabirds and the data used to designate 10 islands as IBAs. A further two were proposed following an expedition to 26 islands in February/March 2006. Due to the historic and restricted temporal and spatial nature of these surveys, the current IBA recommendations may not accurately represent the archipelago’s present seabird status and distribution. To update estimates of the BIOT breeding seabird assemblage and reassess the current IBA recommendations, we used seabird census data collected in every month except September from every island, gathered during 2008–2018. The maximum number of breeding seabirds for a nominal year was 281,596 pairs of 18 species, with three species making up 96%: Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus - 70%, Lesser Noddy Anous tenuirostris - 18% and Red-footed Booby Sula sula - 8%. Phenology was a complex species-specific mix of synchronous and asynchronous breeding, as well as seasonal and aseasonal breeding. Nine of the 10 designated IBAs and the two proposed IBAs qualified for IBA status based on breeding seabirds. However, not every IBA qualified each year because Sooty Terns periodically abandoned breeding islands and Tropical Shearwater Puffinus bailloni breeding numbers dropped below IBA qualifying criteria in some years. Further, one survey per year does not always capture the periodic breeding of some tropical seabirds. We propose therefore, that IBAs in BIOT are better designated at the island cluster level rather than by specific island and require two surveys six months apart per year. This work highlights the merits of long-term, systematic, versus incidental surveys for breeding tropical seabirds and the subsequent associated designation of IBAs.
Mycoprotein consumption has been shown to improve acute postprandial glycaemic control and decrease circulating cholesterol concentrations. We investigated the impact of incorporating mycoprotein into the diet on insulin sensitivity (IS), glycaemic control and plasma lipoprotein composition. Twenty healthy adults participated in a randomised, parallel-group trial in which they consumed a 7 d fully controlled diet where lunch and dinner contained either meat/fish (control group, CON) or mycoprotein (MYC) as the primary source of dietary protein. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed pre- and post-intervention, and 24 h continuous blood glucose monitoring was applied throughout. Fasting plasma samples were obtained pre- and post-intervention and were analysed using quantitative, targeted NMR-based metabonomics. There were no changes within or between groups in blood glucose or serum insulin responses, nor in IS or 24 h glycaemic profiles. No differences between groups were found for 171 of the 224 metabonomic targets. Forty-five lipid concentrations of different lipoprotein fractions (VLDL, LDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein and HDL) remained unchanged in CON but showed a coordinated decrease (7–27 %; all P < 0·05) in MYC. Total plasma cholesterol, free cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL2-cholesterol, DHA and n-3 fatty acids decreased to a larger degree in MYC (14–19 %) compared with CON (3–11 %; P < 0·05). Substituting meat/fish for mycoprotein twice daily for 1 week did not modulate whole-body IS or glycaemic control but resulted in changes to plasma lipid composition, the latter primarily consisting of a coordinated reduction in circulating cholesterol-containing lipoproteins.
Weed management during spring crop production in eastern Washington presents many challenges. Many spring crops are weak competitors with weeds. In May of 2010 and 2011, two spring crop trials were initiated near Pullman, WA, to compare the relative competitiveness of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.), and pea (Pisum sativum L.) using cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.) as a surrogate for wild oat (Avena fatua L.) competition. The experiment was arranged as a split-block split-plot design with four replications. One set of main plots included three oat density treatments (0, 63, and 127 plants m−2), while a second set included each crop species. Crop species main plots were then split into subplots of two different seeding rates (recommended and doubled). Crop populations decreased as oat density increased and increased as crop seeding rate increased. As oat density increased, preharvest crop biomass decreased for all crops, while oat biomass and yield increased. Oat biomass and yield were greater in legume plots compared with cereal plots. Increasing oat density decreased yields for all crops, whereas doubling crop seeding rate increased yields for barley and wheat in 2010 and barley in 2011. Compared with legumes, cereals were taller, produced more biomass, and were more competitive with oat.
According to the stress inoculation hypothesis, successfully navigating life stressors may improve one's ability to cope with subsequent stressors, thereby increasing psychiatric resilience.
Among individuals with no baseline history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD), to determine whether a history of a stressful life event protected participants against the development of PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster.
Analyses utilised data from a multiwave, prospective cohort study of adult Chilean primary care attendees (years 2003–2011; n = 1160). At baseline, participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a comprehensive psychiatric diagnostic instrument, and the List of Threatening Experiences, a 12-item questionnaire that measures major stressful life events. During the study (2010), the sixth most powerful earthquake on record struck Chile. One year later (2011), the CIDI was re-administered to assess post-disaster PTSD and/or MDD.
Marginal structural logistic regressions indicated that for every one-unit increase in the number of pre-disaster stressors, the odds of developing post-disaster PTSD or MDD increased (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.37, and OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.06–1.27 respectively). When categorising pre-disaster stressors, individuals with four or more stressors (compared with no stressors) had higher odds of developing post-disaster PTSD (OR = 2.77, 95% CI 1.52–5.04), and a dose–response relationship between pre-disaster stressors and post-disaster MDD was found.
In contrast to the stress inoculation hypothesis, results indicated that experiencing multiple stressors increased the vulnerability to developing PTSD and/or MDD after a natural disaster. Increased knowledge regarding the individual variations of these disorders is essential to inform targeted mental health interventions after a natural disaster, especially in under-studied populations.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This study’s goal is to examine the feasibility and acceptability of using VRM to impact the APP of adults in the inpatient setting. Aims include examining the: 1) feasibility of VRM for APP management; 2) acceptability of using VRM for APP management; and 3) experience of VRM for APP management. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: To comprehensively examine participants’ experience of using VRM for APP, this study will employ a convergent mixed-methods design in which living kidney donors (N = 45) will be recruited to serially use VRM during their hospital stay. Feasibility and acceptability will be evaluated using descriptive and inferential statistics evaluating patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures taken pre-, post- and 1-hour post-VRM, PRO measures extracted from the participant’s electronic health record and data on VRM use. Semi-structured interviews will allow formulation of inferences based on participants’ experience of VRM for APP management and their insights on content, deployment, and clinical use of VRM. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This in-process study expects: 1) an adequate sample of participants undergoing living kidney donor surgery who agree to enroll with retention of >90% of participants (Aim 1); 2) participants to report VRM as an acceptable and suitable treatment, feel “present” and interested in the VR environment, and feel comfortable using VRM in the hospital (Aim 2); and 3) to provide insight into participants’ experience of VRM for APP, understanding of extended VRM use for APP analgesia, examination of key variables affecting participants’ experience of VRM for APP and feedback about VRM procedures and protocol to inform future VRM use for APP management (Aim 3). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results of the proposed study will inform future clinical testing and deployment of VRM, guide future use of VRM as an adjunct for inpatient APP management, and provide insight into inpatients’ experience of VRM for APP analgesia.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The Mayo Clinic Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) Predoctoral program aims to develop independent researchers capable of leading multi-disciplinary teams to accelerate the translation of discovery to application. Here, we detail the outcomes of our graduates over the past ten years (2010-2019). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION:): A survey was fielded with all CTS graduates whose degrees were conferred since the program’s inception to 2019. Items addressed their current position, whether they were still involved in research, what type of research they were involved in, and whether they stayed involved with education. They also submitted a recent CV, from which data were collected about publications and grants. A subset were then contacted for a semi-structured interview. Items included questions addressing motivation for pursuing a PhD in CTS, whether the program prepared them for their current work, gaps they felt they had in training, and whether they felt they were making a difference in the lives of patients. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of the 41 alumni, 34 responded (83% response rate). Of these, 19 (56%) are at Mayo Clinic, 9 (26%) work for other academic institutions, and 6 (21%) do not work for an academic institution. Most have remained in research (33/34, 97%). The majority (22/33, 67%) are involved in clinical research, 30% (10/33) in basic science, and 24% (8/33) in healthcare delivery research. Most (23/34, 68%) are engaged in educational activities. When asked about changes they have led, 67% (18/27) led quality improvement projects and 44% (12/27) designed a new research method. Several hold leadership positions either in their organization (12/16, 75%) or in a professional organization (10/16, 63%). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTS Predoctoral program successfully prepares scholars for careers involving clinical and translational research; furthermore, alumni remain in research-oriented careers after graduation. We will continue to gather longitudinal data alumni move forward in their careers.
We examine the net benefits of social distancing to slow the spread of COVID-19 in USA. Social distancing saves lives but imposes large costs on society due to reduced economic activity. We use epidemiological and economic forecasting to perform a rapid benefit–cost analysis of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. Assuming that social distancing measures can substantially reduce contacts among individuals, we find net benefits of about $5.2 trillion in our benchmark case. We examine the magnitude of the critical parameters that might imply negative net benefits, including the value of statistical life and the discount rate. A key unknown factor is the speed of economic recovery with and without social distancing measures in place. A series of robustness checks also highlight the key role of the value of mortality risk reductions and discounting in the analysis and point to a need for effective economic stimulus when the outbreak has passed.
Samples from the sphalerite-dominated zone of a seafloor massive sulfide chimney, the Satanic Mills Chimney of the PACMANUS hydrothermal field, have been investigated to determine the internal macrostructure and microstructure of this zone, the phases present, and the distribution of metals. A combination of electron probe microanalysis, electron backscattered diffraction, and x-ray diffraction has been used. At the macroscale, this zone of the chimney wall is heavily porous and is comprised primarily of sphalerite, enclosing minor chalcopyrite, pyrite, and wurtzite. A Pb–As sulfosalt layer of possible microbial origins is present at the outer edge of the sphalerite matrix, next to a pore. The sphalerite has grown in globules on the order of 300 μm in diameter. At the microscale, the sphalerite features a colloform texture and a duplex-type grain structure consisting of either fine-grain regions in the center surrounded by coarse-grained regions or radiating coarse grains only. Pb- and As-rich bands have been detected in the colloform sphalerite, and growth twins have been observed in both the sphalerite and chalcopyrite crystals. A qualitative description of the growth of a typical globule is given, including nucleation, crystal growth, and solute redistribution.
Structural brain abnormalities have been described in autism but studies are often small and contradictory. We aimed to identify which brain regions can reliably be regarded as different in autism compared to healthy controls.
A systematic search was conducted for magnetic resonance imaging studies of regional brain size in autism. Data were extracted and combined using random effects meta-analysis. The modifying effects of age and IQ were investigated using meta-regression.
The total brain, cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and caudate nucleus were increased in volume, whereas the corpus callosum area was reduced. There was evidence for a modifying effect of age and IQ on the cerebellar vermal lobules VI–VII and for age on the amygdala.
Autism may result from abnormalities in specific brain regions and a global lack of integration due to brain enlargement. Inconsistencies in the literature partly relate to differences in the age and IQ of study populations. Some regions may show abnormal growth trajectories.
Disaster in Washington State (USA) is inevitable. It is incumbent on health care providers to understand the practice environment as it will be affected by disasters. This means understanding the basic concepts of emergency management, local to national emergency response structure, and the risks and vulnerabilities of the region where one works. This understanding will help health care providers anticipate and prepare for disaster response and recovery. Washington State has many unique features with regard to climate and geography, population, public health, and general infrastructure that create significant vulnerabilities to disaster and strengths with regard to potential response and recovery. This report attempts to define and contextualize emergency management and to condense the extensive research and planning that has been conducted in Washington State surrounding disaster assessment, planning, mitigation, and response from a health care providerʼs prospective. The aim is to increase awareness of and preparation for disaster-related topics among health care providers by creating informed responders.