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Vitamins play an essential role in broiler nutrition. They are fundamental for normal metabolic and physiological process, and their requirements for poultry are not fixed and can be affected by multiple factors. In contrast, mycotoxins are a challenging issue because they hinder performance and the immune system. Vitamin supplementation above minimum requirements would permit improvement in productive potential, health, bone and meat quality in a situation of mycotoxin challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of optimum vitamin nutrition in diets contaminated with aflatoxin in broilers from 1 to 44 days of age. A total of 1800 Cobb 500 male chicks were randomized to 15 sets of eight treatment groups, each containing 15 birds using a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design (commercial vitamin levels and high vitamin levels, two levels of aflatoxin – 0 and 0.5 ppm with binder levels of 0 and 10 000 mg/kg). The mash diets were corn and soybean meal based, formulated according to commercial practices. Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion were analyzed for birds from 1 to 44 days of age. To determine carcass characteristics (carcass yield, breast yield and leg yield) and black bone syndrome, two birds were slaughtered from each group at 45 days. Other analyses included breast tenderness, water loss by dripping and malonaldehyde concentrations. The results demonstrated that broilers that were fed high levels of vitamins showed better weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and breast yield than broilers that were fed diets with commercial vitamin levels (P < 0.05); also, broilers that were fed diets containing 0.5 ppm aflatoxin had lower weight gain, carcass yield and breast yield (P < 0.05). The use of 10 000 mg/kg of binder improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion throughout the rearing period. We conclude that aflatoxin negatively affects performance and carcass yield; however, feeding optimum vitamin nutrition improved these performance traits.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected parasitic condition endemic in the Americas caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Patients present an acute phase that may or not be symptomatic, followed by lifelong chronic stage, mostly indeterminate, or with cardiac and/or digestive progressive lesions. Benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs approved for treatment but not effective in the late chronic phase and many strains of the parasite are naturally resistant. New alternative therapy is required to address this serious public health issue. Repositioning and combination represent faster, and cheaper trial strategies encouraged for neglected diseases. The effect of imatinib (IMB), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed for use in neoplasias, was assessed in vitro on T. cruzi and mammalian host cells. In comparison with BZ, IMB was moderately active against different strains and forms of the parasite. The combination IMB + BZ in fixed-ratio proportions was additive. Novel 14 derivatives of IMB were screened and a 3,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetamide (3e) was as potent as BZ on T. cruzi but had low selectivity index. The results demonstrate the importance of phenotypic assays, encourage the improvement of IMB derivatives to reach selectivity and testify to the use of repurposing and combination in drug screening for CD.
Leprosy still represents a serious health problem in a number of countries, including Brazil. Although leprosy has been associated with poverty for a long time, it is still difficult to accurately define this relationship. Here, we evaluated in an endemic municipality the progress from 1995 to 2015 of epidemiological indicators to establish if there were any strong associations between social indicators and the occurrence of leprosy. An ecological study was conducted using the SINAN database (Brazilian leprosy-national notifiable diseases information system) in combination with georeferencing of leprosy cases. The georeferencing used the ArcGis programme and occurrence of cases was evaluated in relation to the Health Vulnerability Index (HVI), an indicator that categorises socio-economic and sanitation factors. The data identified a marked decrease in the overall prevalence of leprosy, a reduction in the new case-detection rate and a reduction in the number of cases with grade 2 disabilities (albeit with transient peaks in 2007 and 2015). Logistic regression analysis showed association of detection rates with elevated HVI. Thus, while the epidemiological indicators point to the elimination of leprosy, there is evidence of hidden cases and an association between higher rates of leprosy detection and greater social vulnerability remain.
A study was conducted over eight consecutive days in February 2010 in which daily variations in the vertical distributions of heterotrophic bacteria, mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton at 1–1200 m in the South-western Atlantic Ocean were investigated. Diurnal and nocturnal samples were collected at an oceanographic station at four regional depths: Tropical Water (TW) (1 m), South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) (250 m), Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) (800 m) and Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) (1200 m). Bacterial, mesozooplankton and larval fish densities significantly differed between sample depths but not between sampling tow times. In total, 154 zooplankton species and 18 larval fish species were identified. The highest number of taxa was obtained from the night-time TW trawls. This depth zone had the highest densities of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton (auto and heterotrophic), associated with the highest temperature and salinity and the lowest inorganic nutrient concentrations. Two sample groups were identified based on their mesozooplankton and larval fish compositions: night-time TW and other water masses (daytime TW, SACW, AAIW and UCDW). Thirty-two indicator species were detected in night-time TW. The copepod Nullosetigera impar was, to the best of our knowledge, identified for the first time on the Brazilian coast. Our results showed significant variability in the abundance and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, bacterioplankton and larval fish along the water column in an oceanic area. We have provided new data and insights on the composition and vertical distribution of mesozooplankton, larval fish and bacterioplankton in deep waters in the South-western Atlantic Ocean.
The present study describes the procedure and approaches needed to adapt and harmonise the GloboDiet methodology, a computer- and interview-based 24 h dietary recall, for use in two Latin American pilot countries, Brazil and Mexico.
About seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated following standardised guidelines, starting from existing Spanish and Portuguese versions.
Brazil and Mexico.
New subgroups were added into the existing common food classification together with new descriptors required to better classify and describe specific Brazilian and Mexican foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering types and quantities of food consumed in these two countries, using data available from previous surveys. Furthermore, the photos to be used for quantification purposes were identified for compilation in country-specific but standardised picture booklets.
The completion of the customisation of the GloboDiet Latin America versions in these two pilot countries provides new insights into the adaptability of this dietary international tool to the Latin American context. The ultimate purpose is to enable dietary intake comparisons within and between Latin American countries, support building capacities and foster regional and international collaborations. The development of the GloboDiet methodology could represent a major benefit for Latin America in terms of standardised dietary methodologies for multiple surveillance, research and prevention purposes.
The present research brings psychometric evidences for the Unidimensional Relationship Closeness Scale (URCS), aiming at verifying its adequacy for use in the Brazilian context. Participants were 468 university students with mean age of 21.2 years. They completed a survey composed by the URCS, the Basic Values Survey (BSV), and demographic questions. Through Exploratory (Eigenvalue = 6.61) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFI = .937, TLI = .923), the results showed that the same one-factor structure from the original version of the scale was found. These results were also invariant across gender and relationship status (∆SRMR < .03), and presented evidences of internal consistence (α = .94), temporal stability (ICC = .903, p < .001), and convergent validity (rmale = .32, rfemale = .25, p < .001). In conclusion, this measure has shown to be psychometrically adequate for use in Brazil.
Early Archaic human skeletal remains found in a burial context in Lapa do
Santo in east-central Brazil provide a rare glimpse into the lives of
hunter-gatherer communities in South America, including their rituals for
dealing with the dead. These included the reduction of the body by means of
mutilation, defleshing, tooth removal, exposure to fire and possibly
cannibalism, followed by the secondary burial of the remains according to
strict rules. In a later period, pits were filled with disarticulated bones
of a single individual without signs of body manipulation, demonstrating
that the region was inhabited by dynamic groups in constant transformation
over a period of centuries.
We report the discovery of 15 s oscillations in HST/STIS far-UV spectroscopic observations of WZ Sge in decline, one month after the start of its 2001 outburst. We discuss the implications of this finding for both the magnetic and pulsating white dwarf models that have been proposed to account for the 28 s oscillations.
The aerospace and automotive industries demand the development of new manufacturing processes. The productivity during machining of very flexible aerospace and automotive aluminum components is limited for self-excited vibrations. New solutions are needed to suppress vibrations that affect the accuracy and quality of the machined surfaces. Rejection of one piece implies an increase in the manufacturing cost and time. This paper is focused on the design, manufacturing and characterization of a magnetorheological damper. The damper was attached to a thin-floored component and a magnetic field was controlled in order to modify the damping behavior of the system. The dynamics of the machining process was developed by considering a three-degree-of-freedom model. This study was experimentally validated with a bull-nose end milling tool to manufacture monolithic parts with thin wall and thin floor. Experimental tests and characterization of the magnetorheological damper permitted to improve the surface finish and productivity during the machining of thin-floored components. A further aim of this paper was to develop a rheological damper by using magnetorheological fluids (MR) to change the thin floor rigidity with voltage. The stability of the milling process was also analytically described considering one, two or three degrees of freedom, using a mathematical integration model based on the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method (EMHPM).
Archaeological materials present unique records on natural processes allowing the study of long-term material behaviors such as structural modifications and degradation mechanisms. The present work is focused on the chemical and microstructural characterization of four prehistoric arsenical copper artifacts. These artifacts were characterized by micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with X-ray microanalysis, micro-X-ray diffraction and synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction. Cu3As is the expected intermetallic arsenide in arsenical copper alloys, reported in the literature as exhibiting a hexagonal crystallographic structure. However, a cubic Cu3As phase was identified by X-ray diffraction in all of our analyzed archaeological artifacts, while the hexagonal Cu3As phase was clearly identified only in the artifact with higher arsenic content. Occurrence of the cubic arsenide in these particular objects, suggests that it was precipitated due to long-term aging at room temperature, which points to the need of a redefinition of the Cu-As equilibrium phase constitution. These results highlight the importance of understanding the impact of structural aging for the assessment of original properties of archaeological arsenical copper artifacts, such as hardness or color.
The goal of the present study was to characterize the growth of body parts and composition of the growing empty body to infer how these aspects relate to the long-term growth of goat wethers from dairy breeds. Animals were slaughtered at several ages from birth to maturity (≅900 days old). All body parts were weighed and sampled to determine chemical constituent dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash and specific energy. The monomolecular (Brody), Gompertz, and Richards models, a biphasic model formed by the combined Brody and Gompertz functions, and a simple linear model were fitted to the growth profiles with different variance functions and were all evaluated using likelihood-information criteria. The effect of breed (genotype) was accounted for in all models but the resulting models were not more likely than the models without the breed effect. Remarkable differences were observed regarding inflection points, growth rates and trends for all body parts and chemical constituents of the body. The biphasic model did not supplant the monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards or the linear model in terms of likelihood-information criteria. Therefore, body parts and chemical constituents of the empty body presented monomolecular, sigmoid and linear time-trends. The growth profiles of fat, protein and energy of the empty body did not scale isometrically with the empty body proper. In addition, the variance was heteroscedastic along the time scale and was better represented by both an exponential variance over time or by a power function of the mean.
To determine whether controlling the prescription of targeted antibiotics would translate to a measurable reduction in hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates.
A multicenter before-and-after intervention comparative study.
Ten medical centers in the greater New York region. Intervention group comprised of 6 facilities with early antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). The 4 facilities without ASPs made up the nonintervention group.
Intervention facilities identified target antibiotics using case-control studies and implemented ASP-based strategies to control their use. Pre- and postintervention hospital-onset CDI rates and antibiotic consumption were compared for a 20-month period from June 2010 to January 2012. Antibiotic usage was compared using defined daily dose, days of therapy, and number of courses prescribed. Comparisons used bivariate and regression techniques.
Intervention facilities identified piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, or cefepime (odds ratio, 2.0-9.8 in CDI case patients compared with those without CDI) as intervention targets and selected several interventions (all included a component of audit and feedback). Varying degrees of success were observed in reducing antibiotic consumption over time. Total target antibiotic use significantly decreased (P < .05) when measured by days of therapy and number of courses but not by defined daily dose. Intravenous moxifloxacin and oral ciprofloxacin use showed significant reduction when measured by defined daily dose and days of therapy (P ≤ .01). Number of courses with all forms of these antibiotics was reduced (P ≤ .005). Intervention hospitals reported fewer hospital-onset CDI cases (2.8 rate point difference) compared with nonintervention hospitals; however, we were unable to show statistically significant decreases in aggregate hospital-onset CDI either between intervention and nonintervention groups or within the intervention group over time.
Although decreases in target antibiotic consumption did not translate into reductions of hospital-onset CDI in this study, many valuable lessons (including implementation strategies and antibiotic consumption measures) were learned. The findings can inform potential policy decisions regarding incorporating control of CDI and ASP as healthcare quality measures.
Doped diamond films grown by chemical vapor techniques has been used to study hydrogen and oxygen terminated diamond. It is known that the electrical characteristics of metal-diamond interface are strongly affected by the diamond surface features. O2 plasma treatment was used as a cleaning procedure for as grown diamond samples leading to changes in the capacitance measurements after treatment. The alteration in the characteristics of the samples can be attributed to the surface adsorbates like hydrogen and water vapor present in the atmosphere. The results indicates that the O2 plasma treatment was effective in cleaning the surface revealing the expected features of a p-type diamond film.
To compare Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) findings for a large Brazilian general population sample with those for US children considering: (a) mean problem item ratings; (b) fit of the US-derived CBCL 8-syndrome model; (c) scale internal consistency measured by Cronbach's alphas; (d) effects of society, age, gender on CBCL problem scores; and (e) ability to discriminate referred from non-referred children.
Parents of 1228 non-referred 6-to-11-year-olds from three different regions of Brazil and 247 referred 6-to-11-year-olds from one clinic rated their children's behavioural and emotional problems using the CBCL/6–18.
Results for mean item ratings and scale internal consistencies were very similar to those found in the US and in Uruguay. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that Brazilian data showed the best fit to the US 8-syndrome model of all countries studied to date. Gender patterns were comparable to those reported in other societies, but mean problem scores for non-referred Brazilian children were higher than those for US children. Therefore, the CBCL discriminated less well between non-referred and referred children in Brazil than in the US.
Overall, our findings replicated those reported in international comparisons of CBCL scores for 31 societies, thereby providing support for the multicultural robustness of the CBCL in Brazil.
Four studies have found a smaller amygdalar volume in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to controls, whereas four other studies have found similar amygdalar volume in BPD patients relative to controls. This study aims to compare amygdalar volumes of BPD patients with controls, and also to compare BPD patients with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with controls in order to determine whether PTSD can explain the heterogeneity of findings.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies that measured amygdalar volumes in BPD patients and healthy controls.
A significant reduction of amygdalar volumes in BPD patients was confirmed (p < .001). However, data from the studies that discriminated BPD patients with and without PTSD indicated that amygdalar volumes were significantly smaller in BPD patients without PTSD relative to controls (left: p = .02; right: p = .05), but not in BPD patients with PTSD relative to controls (left: p = .08; right: p = .20).
This meta-analysis suggests that amygdalar volumes are reduced in patients with BPD. This pattern is confirmed in BPD patients without PTSD, but not in BPD patients with PTSD, raising the possibility that reduced amygdalar volume in BPD patients cannot be explained by comorbid PTSD.
This study aimed to assess the feeding association between coral reef fishes and the hydrozoan Millepora spp. in two different reef systems (Tamandaré reefs and Fernando de Noronha archipelago) of Pernambuco State (north-eastern Brazil). A total of eight reef fish species, predominantly juveniles, were recorded feeding on colonies of Millepora spp. during 35 records. The highest recorded feeding rate was 1.72 ± 0.87 bites.minute-1 for Sparisoma axillare and the lowest was 0.18 ± 0.40 bites.minute-1 for Stegastes rocasensis. The colony structure of the genus Millepora supports a high diversity of microfaunal and macrofaunal invertebrates, which may result in the frequent foraging behaviour observed here.
Ribbons of the Ni-44.8wt%Ti shape memory alloy are prepared through the melt spinning technique. The study is focused on investigating the effect of the rapid solidification and grain size at characteristic start martensitic (Ms), final martensitic (Mf), start austenite (As) and final austenite (Af) transformation temperatures. Changes on martensitic transformation temperatures in Ti45Ni55 melt spun ribbons are observed as grain size is reduced. Results of optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to associate grain size with transformation temperatures.
In this work we report on the lattice site location of rare earths in single-crystalline ZnO by means of the emission channeling (EC) technique. Following low dose (3×1013at/cm2) 60 keV ion implantation of the precursor isotope 169Yb, a position-sensitive electron detector was used to monitor the angular distribution of the conversion electrons emitted from 169Tm* as a function of the annealing temperature up to 600°C in vacuum. An additional annealing at 800°C in flowing O2 was performed. The EC measurements revealed that around 95–100% of the rare earth atoms occupy substitutional Zn sites up to an annealing temperature of 600°C/vacuum. After the 800°C/O2 annealing, the emission channeling effects decreased considerably.