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The functional composition of plant communities in montane regions has been studied for decades, and most recent analyses find that environmentally favourable landscapes at lower altitudes tend to be dominated by species with resource-acquisitive traits, while more resource-conservative taxa dominate higher-altitude communities. However, it is unclear the extent to which this pattern is driven by co-gradient variation within clades or changes in clade representation across the gradient. To test for co-gradient variation, species composition, phylogenetic structure and functional traits were quantified for 97 species within the plant family Melastomataceae at five locations across a 2500-m altitudinal gradient along Volcán Barva in Costa Rica. Average melastome leaf force to punch, specific leaf area and leaf size vary with altitude, while four other functional traits do not. Taxonomic dissimilarity between communities was correlated with altitudinal difference, while phylogenetic dissimilarity was correlated with altitudinal dissimilarity only when measured with a metric that emphasizes shallow turnover of the tips of the phylogeny. These results highlight how species turnover may be more pronounced than functional or phylogenetic variation along altitudinal gradients. In addition, these results highlight the conservation value of lowland tropical forests, which here harbour a disproportionate amount of phylogenetic and functional diversity.
We compared rotavirus detection patterns before (2001–2006) and after (2008–2015) rotavirus vaccine introduction. We also compared rotavirus detection patterns in odd (2009, 2011, 2013, 2015) and even (2008, 2010, 2012, 2014) years post-vaccine separately. Results of stool rotavirus antigen testing from inpatient, outpatient and emergency department encounters from July 2000 to July 2015 at two paediatric hospital laboratories in Atlanta, Georgia were reviewed. Post-vaccine, rotavirus detection declined (30.2% vs. 13.7% (overall 54.6% decline, P <0.001)), occurred more frequently outside the rotavirus season (19.8% vs. 3.5%; P < 0.001), and was more common among older children (26 vs. 13 median months of age; P < 0.001). During odd years post-vaccine, rotavirus detection was significantly higher than even years (20.2% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.001). Rotavirus detection declined substantially and developed a biennial pattern in the post-vaccine era. The intensity and temporality of rotavirus detection in odd years post-vaccine resembled that observed pre-vaccine, although considerably reduced in magnitude.
A number of laser facilities coming online all over the world promise the capability of high-power laser experiments with shot repetition rates between 1 and 10 Hz. Target availability and technical issues related to the interaction environment could become a bottleneck for the exploitation of such facilities. In this paper, we report on target needs for three different classes of experiments: dynamic compression physics, electron transport and isochoric heating, and laser-driven particle and radiation sources. We also review some of the most challenging issues in target fabrication and high repetition rate operation. Finally, we discuss current target supply strategies and future perspectives to establish a sustainable target provision infrastructure for advanced laser facilities.
We discuss two themes from Chandra cluster observations. First, we describe the interaction of buoyant, radio emitting plasma bubbles with the hot intracluster gas. Second we summarize the Chandra observations of “cold” fronts (sharp discontinuities in gas density and temperature) separating cool, denser gas clouds from the hotter intracluster medium.
In this study we present investigation on the anelastic behavior of sputtered 1 [.proportional]m thin Cu films. Most of the literature that reports on the mechanical properties of thin metallic films is based on substrate curvature measurements. We have developed a new version of a bulge tester that combines the capacitive measurement of the bulge deflection of a membrane with a resonance frequency measurement of the residual stress in the membrane. A Cu membrane is plastically deformed to a pre-determined strain by controlled gas-pressure bulging of the membrane. After the bulging stress is removed, the residual tensile stress, which has been decreased by the plastic deformation, is then determined by measuring the resonant frequency as a function of time. Immediately after plastic straining, the residual (tensile) stress of membranes was observed to increase. At room temperature a maximum stress was typically reached in the order of an hour. At still longer times the stress decreased again as a result of creep. The transient increase in stress following plastic straining grew larger as the amount of plastic strain produced by bulging was increased. With higher temperatures the transient became both faster and larger. A model is presented that based on the mechanism of thermally activated glide separates the microstructure in a class of “soft” and “hard” grains solving the issue of an “apparent” increase in strain energy as a function of time after deformation.
A brief review is given of models which propose a correlation between electromigration resistance and the mechanical strength of thin film interconnects. In an attempt to achieve metallurgical strengthening and improved electromigration resistance, aluminum films were implanted with oxygen ions. Preliminary electromigration tests on line arrays patterned from these films resulted in lifetimes comparable to the standard Al films. The lack of improvement is attributed to enhanced hillock/whisker growth during electromigration in the implanted interconnects. This behavior is coincident with a lower compressive strength in similarly treated continuous films at elevated temperatures as measured by the substrate curvature technique.
X-ray double- and triple-axis diffractometries were employed to characterize the strain status and structural deformation in Si0.7Ge0.3 alloy layers grown on Si (001) substrates. We show that, at low levels of strain relaxation, x-ray peaks of the Si0.7Ge0.3 alloy layers contain two components, a narrow one superimposed on a broad one. Such a peak profile corresponds to a layer structure consisting of mosaic regions laterally separated by more perfect regions. With the increase in the degree of strain relaxation and consequently in the dislocation density, the narrow component of the x-ray peak gradually disappears as a result of expansion of the mosaic regions and shrinkage or even vanishing of the perfect regions in the layer. Moreover, our results indicate that the conventional method of estimating dislocation density from the x-ray rocking curve width fails in our case.
Diamond films were grown over Si substrate at 1253K by the hot filament chemical vapor deposition method using CH4/H2 gas mixture, and intrinsic stresses in the film were deduced from the ex-situ curvature measurements. In order to account for the creep deformation of the Si substrate, an elastic/plastic stress and strain analysis were conducted. Results showed that intrinsic stresses were generally several times larger than the average film stresses and always positive increasing with the film thickness. For the film thickness larger than 10μm, stress relaxation by creep of the substrate became significant, and must be considered for the accurate assessment of the film stress in diamond. Later, an analysis based on the grain growth accounted for the development of intrinsic stresses reasonably well.
Very fine-grained Ni and Cu films were formed using pulsed laser deposition onto fused silica substrates. The grain sizes in the films were characterized by electron microscopy, and the mechanical properties were determined by ultra-low load indentation, with finite-element modeling used to evaluate the properties of the layers separately from those of the substrate. Some Ni films were also examined after annealing to 350 and 450°C to enlarge the grain sizes. These preliminary results show that the observed hardnesses are consistent with a simple extension of the Hall-Petch relationship to grain sizes as small as 11 nm for Ni and 32 nm for Cu.
The influence of Cu on the response of Al-Cu thin films to thermally induced stress is studied. The copper concentration is varied between 0 and 1.15 at. %. It is proposed that copper atoms which have not formed precipitates, largely affect the mechanical behaviour. This idea is supported by the following observations. An isothermal hold results in temporary strengthening of the films. The extent of this strengthening increases with copper concentration, increases with decreasing isothermal hold temperature and saturates with increasing isothermal hold period. Based on these observations the large tensile stress increase below 200 °C is ascribed to the formation of Cottrell atmospheres.
We report on the change in electrical resistance of tin doped indium oxide thin films on polymer substrates with increasing uniaxial strain. The resistance increases rapidly but continuously above a threshold strain. The threshold strain at which the resistance increases is correlated to the onset of cracking in the oxide film. The strain for cracking and increase in resistance depend upon film thickness. We have measured the distance between neighboring ITO cracks as a function of strain in situ using an optical microscope. At high uniaxial strains the ITO layer fails in the orthogonal direction due to lateral contraction of the polymer substrate. The gradual increase in resistance is modeled assuming there is a conducting layer at the polymer/ITO interface.
X-ray strain analysis via Generalized Focusing Diffractometry (GFD) , and the concurrent need for accurate values of the unstrained lattice parameter, are discussed. A new method for determining the unstrained lattice parameter without knowledge of the elastic constants of the sample material is described. Stress measurements at varying temperatures, and extraction of the coefficient of thermal expansion from these measurements, are demonstrated for aluminum and gold films.
It is well known that the mechanical properties of thin films depend critically on film thickness However, the contributions from film thickness and grain size are difficult to separate, because they typically scale with each other. In one study by Venkatraman and Bravman, Al films, which were thinned using anodic oxidation to reduce film thickness without changing grain size, showed a clear increase in yield stress with decreasing film thickness.
We have performed a similar study on both electroplated and sputtered Cu films by using chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) to reduce the film thickness without changing the grain size. Stress-temperature curves were measured for both the electroplated and sputtered Cu films with thicknesses between 0.1 and 1.8 microns using a laser scanning wafer curvature technique. The yield stress at room temperature was found to increase with decreasing film thickness for both sets of samples. The sputtered films, however, showed higher yield stresses in comparison to the electroplated films. Most of these differences can be attributed to the different microstructures of the films, which were determined by focused ion beam (FIB) microscopy and x-ray diffraction.
Tribochemical studies of the effect of lubricant bonding on the tribology of the head/disk interface (HDI) were conducted using hydrogenated (CHx) carbon disk samples coated with perfluoropolyether ZDOL lubricant. The studies involved drag tests with uncoated and carboncoated Al2O3-TiC sliders and also thermal desorption experiments in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) tribochamber. We observed that a larger mobile lubricant portion significantly enhances the wear durability of the (head/disk interface) HDI by providing a reservoir to constantly replenish the lubricant displaced in the wear track during drag tests. In the thermal desorption tests we observed two distinct temperatures of desorption. The mobile ZDOL layer is desorbed at the lower thermal desorption temperature and the residual bonded ZDOL layer is desorbed at the higher thermal desorption temperature. We also observed that the hydrogen evolution from CHx overcoats initiates lubricant catalytic decomposition with uncoated Al2O3/TiC sliders, forming CF3 (69) and C2F5 (119). The generation of Hydroflouric acid (HF) during thermal desorption experiments provides the formation mechanism of Lewis acid, which is the necessary component for catalytic reaction causing Z-DOL lube degradation.
New oxadiazole-based polymeric materials have been synthesized either as side chain copolymers with polymethacrylate or as main chain copolymers carrying solubilizing elements such as hexafluoropropylidene or meta-linked aromatic spacer units. Many of these materials exhibit blue luminescence in the solid state. The materials have been evaluated by photoluminescence and cyclic voltammetry studies, and as the electron transporting layer in a two-layer electroluminescent device with poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) as the emissive layer. The major conclusion is that these materials function by providing large heterojunction offsets at the Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) which block the passage of holes through the device.
This work presents a novel approach using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) to selectively extract poly(propylene glycol) (PPG) porogen from a poly(methylsilsesquioxane) (PMSSQ) matrix, which results in the formation of nanopores. Nanoporous thin films were prepared by spin-casting a solution containing appropriate quantities of PPG porogen and PMSSQ dissolved in PM acetate. The as-spun films were thermally cured at temperatures well below the thermal degradation temperature of the organic polymer to form a cross-linked organic/inorganic polymer hybrid. By selectively removing the CO2 soluble PPG porogen, open and closed pore structures are possible depending upon the porogen load and its distribution in the matrix before extraction. In the present work, two different loadings of PPG namely 25 wt.% and 55 wt.% were used. Both static SCCO2 and pulsed SCCO2/cosolvent treatments were used for PPG extraction. The initial results indicate that the pulsed SCCO2/cosolovent treatment was more efficient. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and refractive index measurements further corroborate the successful extraction of the porogens at relatively low temperatures (2000C). For the pure PMSSQ film, the k value is 3.1, whereas it is 1.46 and 2.27 for the open and closed pore compositions respectively after the static SCCO2 extraction and 430°C subsequent annealing. The reduction in the k-value is attributed to the formation of nanopores. The pore structure was verified from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and from small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, the pore size was determined to be 1-3 nm for these films.
We have shown previously the results from out-of-plane and in-plane X-ray scattering /diffraction measurements together with transmission electron microscope and X-ray reflectance measurements and shown that they are effective in characterization of a periodic porous silica low-k film . In the present work, we report the results on pore-size distribution, pore-diameter anisotropy, and size and macroscopic isotropy of domain structure.
Adhesion property of Cu film on a low-k material was investigated. The low-k films deposited using a mixture of hexamethyldisilane(HMDS) and para-xylene had a dielectric constant as low as 2.7 and thermal stability up to 400°C. In this work, Ti glue layer, boron dopant, and N2 plasma treatment were applied to improve adhesion between Cu and the low-k films. Adhesion property was significantly enhanced by N2 plasma-treatment on the low-k film and boron dopant in Cu film. This enhanced adhesion was attributed to the formation of new binding states between Ti and the plasma-treated surface of the low-k film and to the diffusion of B from Cu to Ti and low-k films. Cu(B)/Ti/low-k film annealed at 350°C withstood an applied load of about 23 N during the scratch test.