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A method of predicting the approximate relative intensities of lines in proton blocking patterns recently proposed, which is based on summing the squares of structure factors for the various orders of reflection of a plane, is found to predict certain effects of lattice vibrations on the lines in some recently reported patterns. The mean square amplitude of vibration enters the calculations through a Debye-Waller temperature factor like that used in X-ray diffraction. When patterns are compared for groups of crystals that are nearly identical except for this temperature factor, the qualitative predictions by this method agree with the observations. If it is also arbitrarily assumed that the integrated intensity dip at a spot where lines intersect is approximated by summing the calculated Integrated intensity dips for all of the lines crossing at the spot, one has a simple and convenient method of predicting relative spot intensities. Such calculations have been successful in establishing the order of decreasing intensity for most of the spots along a given line, with several different kinds of crystals. This method also serves to predict qualitatively how prominent the spots appear relative to the lines, in general, in patterns of crystals that differ appreciably only in the amplitude of the thermal vibrations.
The method presented In 1976 for measuring stresses in polymeric materials including fiber-reinforced composites (1,2) yielded directly only one or two of the principal stresses and (elastic) strains in the embedded crystalline particles. The method is now extended so as to yield determinations of all three principal stresses σ1, σ2, σ3 and strains, ε1, ε2, ε3, The method applies to both residual and applied stresses and strains.
High angle diffractometry such as is used in ordinary X-ray stress determinations in metal objects is used, with suitable particles being embedded in a homogeneous plastic or reinforced composite before curing.
An array of molecules that is anisotropic in the extreme has been discovered in certain thermal-energy storage materials and is reported here: neopentylglycol (NPG) and NPG-rich solid solutions with pentaglycerine (PG) have a crystal structure, stable at room temperature, that consists of bimolecular chains of molecules that are all unidirectionally aligned throughout a crystal. There are hydrogen bonds between every molecule in one chain and its neighbors in that chain, but none between molecules of one chain and any molecules of the neighboring parallel chains. Thus there are strong intermolecular bonds along each chain and only weaker bonds between the chains. The structure has been determined by using modern single crystal techniques with 529 independent reflections from a crystal of NPG (C5H12O2). The structure is monoclinic with space group P21/c - C2h5. This anisotropic structure transforms to a cubic structure at higher temperatures.
X-rays can be used to measure residual as well as applied stresses in polymers and reinforced polymeric composites, by diffracting from filler particles that are embedded before curing. We have investigated various fillers that exhibit suitable stress induced shifts of diffraction angle when embedded in uniaxial graphite fiber/epoxy composites. X-ray measurements of elastic strains in the particles are proportional to the corresponding composite strains, in agreement with the model of H. T. Hahn. Results indicate that the stress sensitivity (change in X-ray diffraction angle per MPa applied to the composite) increases in the order W, CdO, Hi, Ag, Nb, Al. With Al 333 + 511 reflections of CuKα1, the diffraction angle shifts 8.52 x 10-4 deg 2θ per MPa. Theoretical predictions are in reasonable agreement with this figure. The elastic range terminates at a yield point beyond which little or no further shift of the diffracted beams is seen for metallic fillers, but no such yield point has appeared with CdO particles. Oppositely directed shifts are seen after unloading from stress levels that have exceeded the yield point.
The transition temperatures of solid-solid phase changes in selected polyalcohols, “plastic crystals,” can be adjusted by using interstitial and substitutional dopants. An investigation is under way of the structural changes in these during heating and cooling, and of the thermodynamic properties such as the transition, temperatures and enthalpy changes, as a function of the percent of dopant. The purpose of the investigation is to find and evaluate materials having potential value In thermal storage applications. Dopants for pentaerythritol discussed in this report are trimethylolpropane (TMP), ammonia, boron trifluoride, pentaglycerine (PG) and neopentylglycol (NPG).
Residual stresses on the inner surface of stainless steel pipe used in nuclear reactors are of exceptional importance. Apparatus for measuring these in situ, in welded lengths of 10-inch diameter austenitic (304) stainless pipe has been developed at the University of Denver Research Institute under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute.
To assure an adequate supply of such critical metals as nickel and chromium, extraction procedures must be developed to process low grade domestic sources. In optimizing these procedures it is essential to use suitable analytical procedures to characterize the materials, identify phase transformations, and determine metal and mineral association of the critical metallic elements through all stages of the process. Evaluation of complex sources such as laterites requires special material handling techniques coupled with X-ray diffraction and with optical and SEM analyses of many individual particles. A joint study by the Bureau of Mines and the Denver Research Institute using these procedures has resulted in optimizing a new modification of an extraction process.
XRD has been found to be a useful technique for investigating both surface and interior stresses in. adhesive bonded joints. For the interior stresses, to gain access to the joint interface, adherends were chosen such that one adherend was relatively transparent to the X-radiation used and the other was not. Incident X-rays then penetrated the first adherend and the adhesive, and were diffracted from just below the surface of the second adherend.
In prior work it was shown that the measured stresses due to an applied load agreed quite well with stresses calculated for the same joint using the TEXGAP-2D finite element program, except at one extremity of the bond. One explanation proposed for the discrepancy was that a small debond was present at this extremity. In the present study, therefore, an investigation was made of a joint contfli'nitig an intentional debond at this extremity.
The success of a diffraction experiment often depends on the proper preparation of the sample under study. Many different methods of sample preparation have been devised for many different purposes. A survey was conducted to collect together many of these methods, and the results are reported in this paper.
Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is secreted in a pulsatile manner by the hypothalamus. GnRH is the major hormone controlling the pituitary-testicular axis and therefore influences aggressive and sexual behaviour in bulls. In 6 to 10 week old bull calves an increase in GnRH pulse frequency is responsible for a short-lived rise in circulating levels of LH. It has been shown that bulls with a higher rise in LH attain puberty at younger ages and have comparatively enhanced semen quality once they mature (Evans et al., 1995). Furthermore testicular growth has been enhanced in calves with a premature increase in LH brought about by GnRH treatment (Chandolia et al., 1997). This experiment tests the hypothesis that bull calves with increased GnRH pulsatility engage in more male-male mounting behaviour during this early period while the pattern of hormone secretion is becoming established. Studying this behaviour may give an indication of reproductive potential from as early as 8 weeks of age.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
EZ CMa (HD 50896, WN5) is an enigmatic object. New photometry and polarimetry of EZ CMa are presented in the figure. Again the 3.77 day period is found but, as observed at previous epochs (e.g. Drissen et ai. 1989, Ap. J., 343, 426), the shapes of the curves change. The new photometry can also be interpreted in terms of a shorter period, of 1.254 days. A period of about one day is also claimed in other sets of photometric data (e.g. van der Hucht et ai., 1990, A. A., 228, 108) and in the IUE spectra of St.-Louis et ai. (1990, this symposium). However, despite the complex nature of the light curve, the 3.77 day period is strongly supported by the polarimetry, which shows no evidence for the shorter period.
Hendra virus (HeV) was first described in 1994 in an outbreak of acute and highly lethal disease in horses and humans in Australia. Equine cases continue to be diagnosed periodically, yet the predisposing factors for infection remain unclear. We undertook an analysis of equine submissions tested for HeV by the Queensland government veterinary reference laboratory over a 20-year period to identify and investigate any patterns. We found a marked increase in testing from July 2008, primarily reflecting a broadening of the HeV clinical case definition. Peaks in submissions for testing, and visitations to the Government HeV website, were associated with reported equine incidents. Significantly differing between-year HeV detection rates in north and south Queensland suggest a fundamental difference in risk exposure between the two regions. The statistical association between HeV detection and stockhorse type may suggest that husbandry is a more important risk determinant than breed per se. The detection of HeV in horses with neither neurological nor respiratory signs poses a risk management challenge for attending veterinarians and laboratory staff, reinforcing animal health authority recommendations that appropriate risk management strategies be employed for all sick horses, and by anyone handling sick horses or associated biological samples.
Antarctic and Southern Ocean science is vital to understanding natural variability, the processes that govern global change and the role of humans in the Earth and climate system. The potential for new knowledge to be gained from future Antarctic science is substantial. Therefore, the international Antarctic community came together to ‘scan the horizon’ to identify the highest priority scientific questions that researchers should aspire to answer in the next two decades and beyond. Wide consultation was a fundamental principle for the development of a collective, international view of the most important future directions in Antarctic science. From the many possibilities, the horizon scan identified 80 key scientific questions through structured debate, discussion, revision and voting. Questions were clustered into seven topics: i) Antarctic atmosphere and global connections, ii) Southern Ocean and sea ice in a warming world, iii) ice sheet and sea level, iv) the dynamic Earth, v) life on the precipice, vi) near-Earth space and beyond, and vii) human presence in Antarctica. Answering the questions identified by the horizon scan will require innovative experimental designs, novel applications of technology, invention of next-generation field and laboratory approaches, and expanded observing systems and networks. Unbiased, non-contaminating procedures will be required to retrieve the requisite air, biota, sediment, rock, ice and water samples. Sustained year-round access to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean will be essential to increase winter-time measurements. Improved models are needed that represent Antarctica and the Southern Ocean in the Earth System, and provide predictions at spatial and temporal resolutions useful for decision making. A co-ordinated portfolio of cross-disciplinary science, based on new models of international collaboration, will be essential as no scientist, programme or nation can realize these aspirations alone.