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Mahr & Csibra (M&C) include interesting ideas about the nature of memory from outside of the field of cognitive psychology and cognitive neuroscience. However, the target article's inaccurate claims about those fields limit its usefulness. I briefly review the most serious omissions and distortions of the literature by the target article, including its misrepresentation of event memory, and offer suggestions for forwarding the goal of understanding the communicative function of memory.
From the observed rotation curves of Sa, Sb, and Sc spiral galaxies, it is possible to deduce a dozen constraints on the nonluminous matter in spirals. Within the optical image, the dark matter is less concentrated than the luminous, and contributes about 1/2 of the mass, for spirals of all Hubble types and luminosities.
The discovery of SO galaxies with polar rings makes it possible to directly measure the gravitational potential of a galaxy in three dimensions. Schweizer, Whitmore and Rubin (1983) find a spherical potential in the case of A0136-0801. We have observed three more polar ring galaxies using the 4 meter telescope at CTIO. The following table summarizes the results for these three systems as well as A0136-0801, and figure 1 shows an example of the data.
Systematic rotational properties of field spiral galaxies are presented, as a function of Hubble type and of luminosity. Within a Hubble type, radius, nuclear velocity gradient, rotation velocity, mass, and mass density increase with luminosity, while m/L is constant. At fixed luminosity, V(max), mass, density, and m/L decrease from Sa through Sc. These variations are so systematic that it is possible to display them on a single diagram.
Modern detectors permit astronomers to examine galaxies at very low light levels, at very high velocity resolution, and for nearby objects, at very high spatial resolution. Such observations will lead to phenomenon not previously detected, and offer new insights into the phenomena we presently lump under the heading of “activity.”
Our group has now obtained rotation curves for 80 spiral galaxies, Hubble types Sa through Sd. As described in Rubin et al. (Ap. J. 289, 81; 1985), the forms of these rotation curves are similar for all Hubble types. Given this observational fact, we have chosen to analyze the mass distributions for these galaxies under the assumption that the mass distributions for all spirals can be described by the same three-dimensional form, here taken to be spherical for simplicity. The mass distribution forms for 71 of these galaxies can be placed into a simple classification scheme based on the curvature of mass distribution form in a log(radius) - log (integral mass) diagram. The three most common mass forms among this continuum are termed Types I, II and III, the forms of which are displayed below (see also the discussion by Rubin elsewhere in this Symposium).
“The stellar milky way, in the region of which, according to Argelander's admirable observations, the brightest stars of the firmament appear to be congregated, is almost at right angles with another milky way, composed of nebulae… the milky way composed of nebulae does not belong to our starry stratum, but surrounds it at great distance without being physically connected with it, passing almost in the form of a large cross through the dense nebulae of Virgo, especially the northern wing, through Coma Berenicis, Ursa Major, Andromeda's girdle, and Pisces Boreales”. These words, published 140 years ago by Alexander von Humboldt (1849), outline the program which brings us all to Hungary for this conference.
To examine variation in antibiotic coverage and detection of resistant pathogens in community-onset pneumonia.
A total of 128 hospitals in the Veterans Affairs health system.
Hospitalizations with a principal diagnosis of pneumonia from 2009 through 2010.
We examined proportions of hospitalizations with empiric antibiotic coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) and with initial detection in blood or respiratory cultures. We compared lowest- versus highest-decile hospitals, and we estimated adjusted probabilities (AP) for patient- and hospital-level factors predicting coverage and detection using hierarchical regression modeling.
Among 38,473 hospitalizations, empiric coverage varied widely across hospitals (MRSA lowest vs highest, 8.2% vs 42.0%; PAER lowest vs highest, 13.9% vs 44.4%). Detection rates also varied (MRSA lowest vs highest, 0.5% vs 3.6%; PAER lowest vs highest, 0.6% vs 3.7%). Whereas coverage was greatest among patients with recent hospitalizations (AP for anti-MRSA, 54%; AP for anti-PAER, 59%) and long-term care (AP for anti-MRSA, 60%; AP for anti-PAER, 66%), detection was greatest in patients with a previous history of a positive culture (AP for MRSA, 7.9%; AP for PAER, 11.9%) and in hospitals with a high prevalence of the organism in pneumonia (AP for MRSA, 3.9%; AP for PAER, 3.2%). Low hospital complexity and rural setting were strong negative predictors of coverage but not of detection.
Hospitals demonstrated widespread variation in both coverage and detection of MRSA and PAER, but probability of coverage correlated poorly with probability of detection. Factors associated with empiric coverage (eg, healthcare exposure) were different from those associated with detection (eg, microbiology history). Providing microbiology data during empiric antibiotic decision making could better align coverage to risk for resistant pathogens and could promote more judicious use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Objectives: This study examined whether children with distinct brain disorders show different profiles of strengths and weaknesses in executive functions, and differ from children without brain disorder. Methods: Participants were children with traumatic brain injury (N=82; 8–13 years of age), arterial ischemic stroke (N=36; 6–16 years of age), and brain tumor (N=74; 9–18 years of age), each with a corresponding matched comparison group consisting of children with orthopedic injury (N=61), asthma (N=15), and classmates without medical illness (N=68), respectively. Shifting, inhibition, and working memory were assessed, respectively, using three Test of Everyday Attention: Children’s Version (TEA-Ch) subtests: Creature Counting, Walk-Don’t-Walk, and Code Transmission. Comparison groups did not differ in TEA-Ch performance and were merged into a single control group. Profile analysis was used to examine group differences in TEA-Ch subtest scaled scores after controlling for maternal education and age. Results: As a whole, children with brain disorder performed more poorly than controls on measures of executive function. Relative to controls, the three brain injury groups showed significantly different profiles of executive functions. Importantly, post hoc tests revealed that performance on TEA-Ch subtests differed among the brain disorder groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that different childhood brain disorders result in distinct patterns of executive function deficits that differ from children without brain disorder. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. (JINS, 2017, 23, 529–538)
Environmental exposures during pregnancy may increase breast cancer risk for mothers and female offspring. Tumor tissue assays may provide insight regarding the mechanisms. This study assessed the feasibility of obtaining tumor samples and pathology reports from mothers (F0) who were enrolled in the Child Health and Development Studies during pregnancy from 1959 to 1967 and their daughters (F1) who developed breast cancer over more than 50 years of follow-up. Breast cancer cases were identified through linkage to the California Cancer Registry and self-report. Written consent was obtained from 116 F0 and 95 F1 breast cancer survivors to access their pathology reports and tumor blocks. Of those contacted, 62% consented, 13% refused and 24% did not respond. We obtained tissue samples for 57% and pathology reports for 75%, and if diagnosis was made ⩽10 years we obtained tissue samples and pathology reports for 91% and 79%, respectively. Obtaining pathology reports and tumor tissues of two generations is feasible and will support investigation of the relationship between early-life exposures and molecular tumor markers. However, we found that more recent diagnosis increased the accessibility of tumor tissue. We recommend that cohorts request consent for obtaining future tumor tissues at study enrollment and implement real-time tissue collection to enhance success of collecting tumor samples and data.
This list contains the results of measurements made during 1963 and 1964. Samples are counted in the form of acetylene gas, as previously, and ages computed using the Libby half-life of 5568 ± 30 yr. The error listed is always larger than the one-sigma statistical counting error commonly used, takes into account known uncertainty laboratory factors, but does not include external (field or atmospheric) variations.
This list contains the results of measurements made during 1965 and 1966. Samples are counted in the form of acetylene gas, as previously, and ages computed on the basis of the Libby half-life, 5568 ± 30 yr. The error listed is always larger than the one-sigma statistical counting error commonly used, takes into account known uncertainty laboratory factors, but does not include external (field or atmospheric) variations.
This date list contains the results of measurements made during 1961, 1962 and 1963. The method of counting, utilizing acetylene gas, remains essentially unchanged, except for the addition of some solid state electronics. The method of computation, using the Libby half-life of 5568 ± 30 yr, is continued. The error listed is always larger than the one-sigma statistical counting error commonly used, and takes into account known uncertainty laboratory factors, and does not include external (field or atmospheric) variations.
Unless otherwise stated, collectors of all samples are members of the U. S. Geological Survey.
The Aquia (Paleocene) and Magothy (Late Cretaceous) Formations of the Atlantic Coastal Plain represent two well-characterized (hydrodynamically and geochemically) aquifers in southern Maryland. 14C measurements of the dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC) of Aquia and Magothy groundwaters have been made using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Both DI14C and DO14C concentrations in the initial flow path are unexpectedly low. As the water progresses farther from the recharge area, the DI14C percent modern carbon (pMC) is consistently lower than the DO14C pMC; this difference stays constant for all samples. The 14C-derived ages for an Aquia water sample downgradient at Site 4 are 17 ka and 12 ka for DI14C and DO14C, respectively. Radiocarbon ages have been compared to ages determined by two other independent dating methods: computer-simulated hydrodynamic modeling and age estimates based on changes in Cl−, 18O and 2H distributions, which are interpreted to be influenced by sea level and climate.
Ninety-six new 14C dates are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material coll from beneath prehistoric lava flows and ash deposits from Mauna Loa (ML) and Kilauea volcanoes. Before 1976, only 10 flows from these volcanoes had been dated by radiocarbon methods. Collection of dateable material has been facilitated by an improved understanding of the conditions of charcoal formation and preservation beneath basaltic lavas (Lockwood & Lipman, 1979).
The soft X-ray transient (SXT) GRO J0422+32 (Nova Persei 1992) was detected with the Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the CGRO on 1992 August 5 (Paciesas et al. 1992) (Truncated Julian Day [TJD] 8839). The source intensity of GRO J0422+32 increased rapidly, reaching a flux of ~ 3 Crab (40-230 keV) within days after its first detection (Harmon et al. 1992). Hereafter, the X-ray intensity of the source decreased exponentially with a decay time of ~ 43 days (Vikhlinin et al. 1995). A secondary maximum of the X-ray intensity was reached at TJD 8978, 139 days after the first detection of the source. The daily averaged flux history of GRO J0422+32 in the 40-150 keV energy band is presented in Figure 1.
The Medium-l Program of the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on board SOHO provides continuous observations of oscillation modes of angular degree, l, from 0 to ∼ 300. The initial results show that the noise in the Medium-l oscillation power spectrum is substantially lower than in ground-based measurements. This enables us to detect lower amplitude modes and, thus, to extend the range of measured mode frequencies. The MDI observations also reveal the asymmetry of oscillation spectral lines. The line asymmetries agree with the theory of mode excitation by acoustic sources localized in the upper convective boundary layer. The sound-speed profile inferred from the mean frequencies gives evidence for a sharp variation at the edge of the energy-generating core. In a thin layer just beneath the convection zone, helium appears to be less abundant than predicted by theory. Inverting the multiplet frequency splittings from MDI, we detect significant rotational shear in this thin layer.
The present Report covers the period 1982-1984. As with previous Reports, it has not been possible to cover all publications or even every field of research. Some subsections of this Report, the Magellanic Clouds for example, report a body of work as extensive as that in some commissions.
Un échantillon idéal pour la recherche d’une éventuelle anisotropie dans l’expansion de Hubble doit couvrir la totalité de la surface du ciel, de plus les magnitudes et les vitesses ne doivent pas être entachées d’erreurs dépendant de la position des objets choisis. Très peu d’échantillons satisfont ces critères. Toutefois les échantillons de galaxies Se I, de galaxies E et SO, et d’amas riches mettent en évidence une anisotropie provenant soit d’une vitesse du groupe local ~ 500kms-1, (V⊙ ~ 600kms-1), soit du fait que H varie de 20% d’un point à l’autre du ciel, soit du fait que m ou Mo varie de 0.4m. Des explications moins conventionnelles ne semblent pas nécessaires. Seul le mouvement du groupe local est compatible avec les données de l’échantillon de SC I les plus proches. Compte-tenu du mouvement de l’observateur, l’expansion de Hubble ne présente pas d’anisotropie supérieure à 5%. Toutefois, cette interprétation n’est pas compatible avec le rayonnement à 3°K qui impose V⊙ <300kms-1.