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To examine the feasibility of using social media to assess the consumer nutrition environment by comparing sentiment expressed in Yelp reviews with information obtained from a direct observation audit instrument for grocery stores.
Trained raters used the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S) in 100 grocery stores from July 2015 to March 2016. Yelp reviews were available for sixty-nine of these stores and were retrieved in February 2017 using the Yelp Application Program Interface. A sentiment analysis was conducted to quantify the perceptions of the consumer nutrition environment in the review text. Pearson correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to compare NEMS-S scores with Yelp review text on food availability, quality, price and shopping experience.
Detroit, Michigan, USA.
Yelp reviews contained more comments about food availability and the overall shopping experience than food price and food quality. Negative sentiment about food prices in Yelp review text and the number of dollar signs on Yelp were positively correlated with observed food prices in stores (ρ=0·413 and 0·462, respectively). Stores with greater food availability were rated as more expensive on Yelp. Other aspects of the food store environment (e.g. overall quality and shopping experience) were captured only in Yelp.
While Yelp cannot replace in-person audits for collecting detailed information on the availability, quality and cost of specific food items, Yelp holds promise as a cost-effective means to gather information on the overall cost, quality and experience of food stores, which may be relevant for nutrition outcomes.
Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide. In recent years, Escherichia albertii has also been implicated as a cause of human enteric diseases. This study describes the occurrence of E. coli pathotypes and serotypes associated with enteric illness and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) isolated in Brazil from 2011 to 2016. Pathotypes isolated included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). PCR of stool enrichments for DEC pathotypes was employed, and E. albertii was also sought. O:H serotyping was performed on all DEC isolates. A total of 683 DEC and 10 E. albertii strains were isolated from 5047 clinical samples. The frequencies of DEC pathotypes were 52.6% (359/683) for EPEC, 32.5% for EAEC, 6.3% for ETEC, 4.4% for EIEC and 4.2% for STEC. DEC strains occurred in patients from 3 months to 96 years old, but EPEC, EAEC and STEC were most prevalent among children. Both typical and atypical isolates of EPEC and EAEC were recovered and presented great serotype heterogeneity. HUS cases were only associated with STEC serotype O157:H7. Two E. albertii isolates belonged to serogroup O113 and one had the stx2f gene. The higher prevalence of atypical EPEC in relation to EAEC in community-acquired diarrhoea in Brazil suggests a shift in the trend of DEC pathotypes circulation as previously EAEC predominated. This is the first report of E. albertii isolation from active surveillance. These results highlight the need of continuing DEC and E. albertii surveillance, as a mean to detect changes in the pattern of pathotypes and serotypes circulation and provide useful information for intervention and control strategies.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Significant reductions recently seen in the size of wide-bandgap power electronics have not been accompanied by a relative decrease in the size of the corresponding magnetic components. To achieve this, a new generation of materials with high magnetic saturation and permeability are needed. Here, we develop gram-scale syntheses of superparamagnetic Fe/FexOy core–shell nanoparticles and incorporate them as the magnetic component in a strongly magnetic nanocomposite. Nanocomposites are typically formed by the organization of nanoparticles within a polymeric matrix. However, this approach can lead to high organic fractions and phase separation; reducing the performance of the resulting material. Here, we form aminated nanoparticles that are then cross-linked using epoxy chemistry. The result is a magnetic nanoparticle component that is covalently linked and well separated. By using this ‘matrix-free’ approach, we can substantially increase the magnetic nanoparticle fraction, while still maintaining good separation, leading to a superparamagnetic nanocomposite with strong magnetic properties.
The ability to interface electronic materials with the peripheral nervous system is required for stimulation and monitoring of neural signals. Thus, the design and engineering of robust neural interfaces that maintain material-tissue contact in the presence of material or tissue micromotion offer the potential to conduct novel measurements and develop future therapies that require chronic interface with the peripheral nervous system. However, such remains an open challenge given the constraints of existing materials sets and manufacturing approaches for design and fabrication of neural interfaces. Here, we investigated the potential to leverage a rapid prototyping approach for the design and fabrication of nerve cuffs that contain supporting features to mechanically stabilize the interaction between cuff electrodes and peripheral nerve. A hybrid 3D printing and robotic-embedding (i.e., pick-and-place) system was used to design and fabricate silicone nerve cuffs (800 µm diameter) containing conforming platinum (Pt) electrodes. We demonstrate that the electrical impedance of the cuff electrodes can be reduced by deposition of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on cuff electrodes via a post-processing electropolymerization technique. The computer-aided design and manufacturing approach was also used to design and integrate supporting features to the cuff that mechanically stabilize the interface between the cuff electrodes and the peripheral nerve. Both ‘self-locking’ and suture-assisted locking mechanisms are demonstrated based on the principle of making geometric alterations to the cuff opening via 3D printing. Ultimately, this work shows 3D printing offers considerable opportunity to integrate supporting features, and potentially even novel electronic materials, into nerve cuffs that can support the design and engineering of next generation neural interfaces.
We investigated the predictors of neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) treatment in severe hospitalised influenza cases and the association between antiviral treatment and mortality. An observational epidemiological study was carried out in Catalonia (Spain) during 2010–2016 in patients aged ⩾18 years. Severe hospitalised cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza requiring hospitalisation were included. We collected demographic, virological and clinical characteristics. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratio (aOR). We included 1727 hospitalised patients, of whom 1577 (91.3%) received NAI. Receiving NAI ⩽48 h after onset of clinical symptoms (aOR 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.63), ⩽3 days (aOR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30–0.79) and ⩽5 days (aOR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32–0.79) was associated with a reduction in deaths. In patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (595; 34.5%), treatment ⩽48 h (aOR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.74), ⩽3 days (aOR 0.44, 95% CI 0.20–0.97) and ⩽5 days (aOR 0.45, 95% CI 0.22–0.96) was associated with a reduction in deaths. Receiving treatment >5 days after onset of clinical symptoms was not associated with the reduction in deaths in hospitalised patients or those admitted to the ICU. NAI treatment of hospitalised patients with severe confirmed influenza was effective in avoiding death, mainly when administered ⩽48 h after symptom onset, but also when no more than 5 days had elapsed.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
To describe the utilization of electronic medical data resources, including health records and nursing scheduling resources, to conduct a tuberculosis (TB) exposure investigation in a high-risk oncology unit.
A 42-bed inpatient unit with a mix of surgical and medical patients at a large tertiary-care cancer center in New York City.
High-risk subjects and coworkers exposed to a healthcare worker (HCW) with cavitary smear positive lung TB.
During the 3-month exposure period, 270 patients were admitted to the unit; 137 of these (50.7%) received direct care from the index case HCW. Host immune status and intensity of exposure were used to establish criteria for postexposure testing, and 63 patients (45%) met these criteria for first-tier postexposure testing. No cases of active TB occurred. Among coworkers, 146 had significant exposure (ie, >8 hours cumulative). In the 22-month follow-up period after the exposure, no purified protein derivative or interferon gamma release assay conversions or active cases of TB occurred among exposed HCWs or patients.
Electronic medical records and employee scheduling systems are useful resources to conduct otherwise labor-intensive contact investigations. Despite the high-risk features of our index case, a highly vulnerable immunocompromised patient population, and extended proximity to coworkers, we did not find any evidence of transmission of active or latent tuberculosis infection among exposed individuals.
Body image disturbance (BID) is a core symptom of anorexia nervosa (AN), but as yet distinctive features of BID are unknown. The present study aimed at disentangling perceptual and attitudinal components of BID in AN.
We investigated n = 24 women with AN and n = 24 controls. Based on a three-dimensional (3D) body scan, we created realistic virtual 3D bodies (avatars) for each participant that were varied through a range of ±20% of the participants’ weights. Avatars were presented in a virtual reality mirror scenario. Using different psychophysical tasks, participants identified and adjusted their actual and their desired body weight. To test for general perceptual biases in estimating body weight, a second experiment investigated perception of weight and shape matched avatars with another identity.
Women with AN and controls underestimated their weight, with a trend that women with AN underestimated more. The average desired body of controls had normal weight while the average desired weight of women with AN corresponded to extreme AN (DSM-5). Correlation analyses revealed that desired body weight, but not accuracy of weight estimation, was associated with eating disorder symptoms. In the second experiment, both groups estimated accurately while the most attractive body was similar to Experiment 1.
Our results contradict the widespread assumption that patients with AN overestimate their body weight due to visual distortions. Rather, they illustrate that BID might be driven by distorted attitudes with regard to the desired body. Clinical interventions should aim at helping patients with AN to change their desired weight.
To assess quality of life of children and teenagers with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, according to the evidence of infection by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11, compared with healthy volunteers and patients with chronic otitis media.
Participants and their parents completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0.
Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents reported lower quality of life than healthy subjects (p < 0.01), but similar quality of life to patients with chronic otitis media. Those with human papillomavirus type 11 showed the lowest scores among all participants (p < 0.05).
Young Mexican patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and their parents perceive a poor quality of life, and they may experience limitations in interactions with their peers. Infection by human papillomavirus type 11 may increase the impact of the disease on quality of life.
First results from the 4-6 months observations of the VIRGO experiment (Variability of solar IRradiance and Gravity Oscillations) on the ESA/NASA Mission SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) are reported. The time series are evaluated in terms of solar irradiance variability, solar background noise characteristics and p-mode oscillations. The solar irradiance is modulated by the passage of active regions across the disk, but not all of the modulation is straightforwardly explained in terms of sunspot flux blocking and facular enhancement. The observed p-mode frequencies are more-or-less in agreement with earlier measurements, but it is interesting to note that systematic differences seem to exist between the observations in different colours. There is also evidence that magnetic activity plays a significant role in the dynamics of the oscillations beyond its modulation of the resonant frequencies. Moreover, by comparing the amplitudes of different components of p-mode multiplets, each of which are influenced differently by spatial inhomogeneity, we have found that activity enhances excitation.
Vegetable oils are used to increase energy density of dairy cow diets, although they can provoke changes in rumen bacteria populations and have repercussions on the biohydrogenation process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sources of dietary lipids: soybean oil (SO, an unsaturated source) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO, a saturated source) on bacterial populations and the fatty acid profile of ruminal digesta. Three non-lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a 3×3 Latin square design with three periods consisting of 21 days. Dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (Control, no fat supplement) and the basal diet supplemented with SO (2.7% of dry matter (DM)) or HPO (2.7% of DM). Ruminal digesta pH, NH3–N and volatile fatty acids were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with control and HPO, total bacteria measured as copies of 16S ribosomal DNA/ml by quantitative PCR was decreased (P<0.05) by SO. Fibrobacter succinogenes, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus and Anaerovibrio lipolytica loads were not affected by dietary treatments. In contrast, compared with control, load of Prevotella bryantii was increased (P<0.05) with HPO diet. Compared with control and SO, HPO decreased (P<0.05) C18:2 cis n-6 in ruminal digesta. Contents of C15:0 iso, C18:11 trans-11 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 were increased (P<0.05) in ruminal digesta by SO compared with control and HPO. In conclusion, supplementation of SO or HPO do not affect ruminal fermentation parameters, whereas HPO can increase load of ruminal P. bryantii. Also, results observed in our targeted bacteria may have depended on the saturation degree of dietary oils.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic viral pathogen maintained in an enzootic cycle between mosquitoes (vectors) and birds (natural hosts) with equids, humans, and other vertebrates acting as dead-end hosts. WNV activity in Mexico has been reported in several domestic and wild fauna and in humans, and the virus has been isolated from birds, mosquitoes, and humans. However, no serological studies have been conducted in monkeys, and only two in a limited number of crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii). Here we present data on the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against WNV in 53 healthy wild monkeys (49 Ateles geoffroyi and four Alouatta pigra), and 80 semi-captive healthy crocodiles (60 C. acutus and 20 C. acutus–C. moreletti hybrids) sampled during 2012. None of the monkey sera neutralized WNV, whereas 55% of the crocodile sera presented neutralizing antibodies against WNV. These results can contribute to the design of surveillance programmes in Mexico.
We report the discovery of both intermediate-order gravity mode and low-order pressure mode pulsation in the same star, HD 209295. It is therefore both a γ Doradus and a δ Scuti star, which makes it the first confirmed member of two classes of pulsating star.
This object is located in a close binary system with an unknown, but likely degenerate companion in an eccentric orbit, and some of the γ Doradus pulsation frequencies are exact integer multiples of the orbital frequency. We suggest that these pulsations are tidally excited. HD 209295 may be the progenitor of an intermediate-mass X-Ray binary.
The aerospace and automotive industries demand the development of new manufacturing processes. The productivity during machining of very flexible aerospace and automotive aluminum components is limited for self-excited vibrations. New solutions are needed to suppress vibrations that affect the accuracy and quality of the machined surfaces. Rejection of one piece implies an increase in the manufacturing cost and time. This paper is focused on the design, manufacturing and characterization of a magnetorheological damper. The damper was attached to a thin-floored component and a magnetic field was controlled in order to modify the damping behavior of the system. The dynamics of the machining process was developed by considering a three-degree-of-freedom model. This study was experimentally validated with a bull-nose end milling tool to manufacture monolithic parts with thin wall and thin floor. Experimental tests and characterization of the magnetorheological damper permitted to improve the surface finish and productivity during the machining of thin-floored components. A further aim of this paper was to develop a rheological damper by using magnetorheological fluids (MR) to change the thin floor rigidity with voltage. The stability of the milling process was also analytically described considering one, two or three degrees of freedom, using a mathematical integration model based on the Enhanced Multistage Homotopy Perturbation Method (EMHPM).
It is well known that the interaction between two disk galaxies generates tidal spiral arms and a connection in the form of a bridge. Here we address the question of the formation of tidal arms and bridges from a dynamical point of view. We model the bridges and tails observed in interacting galaxies using the invariant manifolds associated to the Lyapunov orbits of the Lagrangian points of the galactic system, when the two galaxies are considered as two point masses in a circular orbit.
We explore the possibility of detecting and characterising the warp of the stellar disc of our Galaxy using the synthetic Gaia data and the UCAC4 proper motion catalogue. We develop a new kinematic model for the galactic warp. We generate random realisations of test particles which evolve in a realistic Galactic potential warped adiabatically to various final configurations. The Gaia selection function, its errors model and a realistic 3D extinction map are applied to mimic three tracer populations: OB, A and Red Clump stars. A family of Great Circle Cell Counts (GC3) methods is used. They are ideally suited to find the tilt and twist of a collection of rings, which allow us to detect and measure the warp parameters. Moreover, We look for the kinematic signature of the warp in the μb proper motions of stars as a function of galactic longitude. Using the UCAC4 proper motions, we do not obtain a similar trend as the one we expect from our warp model. We explore a possible source of this discrepancy in terms of systematics caused by a residual spin of the Hipparcos celestial reference frame (HCRF) with respect to the extra-galactic inertial one.