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Older people have a higher risk of drug-related problems (DRPs). However, little is known about the prevalence of DRPs in community-dwelling people who screened positive for dementia. Our study aimed to determine (1) the prevalence and types of DRPs and (2) the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with DRPs in people screened positive for dementia in primary care.
The Dementia: life- and person-centered help in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (DelpHi-MV) study is a general practitioner (GP)-based cluster-randomized controlled intervention study to implement and evaluate an innovative concept of collaborative dementia care management in the primary care setting in Germany. Medication reviews of 446 study participants were conducted by pharmacists based on a comprehensive baseline assessment that included a computer-based home medication assessment. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01401582.
A total of 1,077 DRPs were documented. In 414 study participants (93%), at least one DRP was detected by a pharmacist. The most frequent DRPs were administration and compliance problems (60%), drug interactions (17%), and problems with inappropriate drug choice (15%). The number of DRPs was significantly associated with the total number of drugs taken and with a formal diagnosis of a mental or behavioral disorder.
Degree of cognitive impairment (MMSE defined) and formal diagnosis of dementia were not risk factors for an increased number of DRPs. However, the total number of drug taken and the presence of a diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders were associated with an increased total number of DRPs.
We present an in-depth study of metal-poor stars, based high resolution spectra combined with newly released astrometric data from Gaia, with special attention to observational uncertainties. The results are compared to those of other studies, including Gaia benchmark stars. Chemical evolution models are discussed, highlighting few puzzles that are still affecting our understanding of stellar nucleosynthesis and of the evolution of our Galaxy.
A combination of neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and high-resolution extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements has been used to clarify the correlations between long- and local-range structural distortions across the spin-state transition in powders of LaCoO3 and La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3. The analysis of the diffraction data has revealed that the isotropic thermal parameters of Co–O bond abnormally increase below 100 K in both samples, while the temperature dependence of the average Co–O bond lengths is linear from 10 to 300 K. We also have found that the Co–O bond lengths are larger in La0.5Sr0.5Co0.75Nb0.25O3, as compared with the ones in LaCoO3. The X-ray absorption data showed an anomalous decrease of the Co–O bond lengths only for LaCoO3, in contrast to the bond length values obtained by diffraction. The structural anomalies observed by spectroscopy measurements are discussed in terms of the spin-state transition model.
Cattleya walkeriana, one of the most improved Brazilian Cattleyas, is a popular tropical orchid endemic from Brazil and currently endangered. In the present study, for the first time microsatellite markers were developed for C. walkeriana and their transferability was tested for the species C. loddigesii and C. nobilior. The markers were used for genotyping 26 C. walkeriana specimens from different growers and from different levels of improvement. The transferability was successful, with five polymorphic loci transferred to C. loddigesii and six polymorphic loci to C. nobilior. Eight loci were polymorphic, revealing a maximum of two to ten alleles per locus in C. walkeriana and two to four and two to five in C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, respectively. There was no significant linkage disequilibrium in the studied loci. For C. walkeriana, the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0 to 0.963 and from 0.138 to 0.841, respectively. These markers identified polymorphisms and may be used to study the genetic diversity, gene flow or hybridization of these species.
Structural measurements have been performed on the La0.7Sr0.3Mn3+0.85Nb5+0.15O3 compound with oxidation state of manganese close to +3. The composition undergoes a structural transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic symmetry below room temperature. The calculated structural parameters show that the orthorhombic phase is not long-range orbitally ordered and that the structural transition is associated with a steric effect. The compound is ferromagnetic with a Curie point of around 150 K and a magnetic moment of 3.1 μB/Mn. It is suggested that ferromagnetism is originated from superexchange interactions via oxygen. Covalence enhances the positive part of the superexchange interactions whereas structural disorder leads to suppression of ferromagnetism.
Neutron diffraction studies of the La0.5Ba0.5CoO2.8 at the different temperatures has been performed. This solid solution crystallizes in the cubic structure (Pm3m space group) and exhibits below TN ~ 250K G-type antifferomagnetic ordering. Applied pressure suppresses magnetic ordering. Anomalous changes of the lattice parameters under pressure have been found.
Nuclear fuel plates based on a γU-Mo/Al mixture are proposed for research reactors. In this work their thermal behavior in the [425; 550°C] temperature range has been studied mainly by neutron and high energy X-ray diffraction. Even if complementary studies will be necessary, the kinetics of first the growth of the interaction layer between γU-Mo and Al and second of the γU-Mo destabilization have been accurately measured. This basic work should be helpful for defining manufacturing conditions for fuel plates with optimized composition.
The field of time-domain astronomy is expected to enjoy a golden age during this decade. However, the traditional method for the classification of transient candidates using spectra obtained with medium- to large-aperture telescopes is extremely time consuming and struggling to keep up with the discovery rate. The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) Machine uses a new approach in order to overcome this shortcoming.
Complex Metallic Alloys (CMAs) are metallic solids of high structural complexity, consisting of large numbers of atoms in their unit cells. Consequences of this structural complexity are manifold and give rise to a variety of exciting physical properties. The impact that such structural complexity may have on the lattice dynamics will be discussed. The surprising dynamical flexibility of Tsai-type clusters with the symmetry breaking central tetrahedron will be addressed for Zn6Sc, while in the Ba-Ge-Ni clathrate system the dynamics of encaged Ba guest atoms in the surrounding Ge-Ni host framework is analysed with respect to the experimentally evidenced strong reduction of lattice thermal conductivity. For both systems experimental results from neutron scattering are analyzed and interpreted on atomistic scale by means of ab initio and molecular dynamics simulations, resulting in a picture with the respective structural building blocks as the origin of the peculiarities in the dynamics.
Synchrotron-based X-ray techniques are used increasingly to characterize actinide element speciation in heterogeneous media related to nuclear waste disposal safety. Especially techniques offering added temporal, spatial and energy resolved information are advancing our understanding of f-element physics and chemistry in general and of actinide element waste disposal in particular. Examples of investigations of uranium containing systems using both highly (energy) resolved X-ray emission spectroscopy (HRXES) techniques and spatially resolved techniques with focused X-ray beams are presented in this paper: polarization dependent partial fluorescence yield X-ray absorption near edge structure (PD-PFY-XANES) spectroscopic studies of a single Cs2UO2Cl4 crystal, which experimentally reveal a splitting of the σ, π, and δ components of the 6d valence states , and characterization of UO2/Mo thin films prepared on different substrates using a combination of techniques (2D and 3D micro- and nano-X-ray fluorescence, XANES and both holographic and ptychographic tomography).
Nb-silicide based in-situ composites consist of a ductile Nb-based solid solution with high-strength silicides, and they show excellent promise for aircraft engine applications. The Nb-silicide controls the high-temperature tensile behavior of the composite, and the Nb solid solution controls the low and intermediate temperature capability. The aim of the present study was to understand the effects of substitutional elements on the room temperature tensile behavior and identify the principal microstructural features contributing to strengthening mechanisms.
Nanoindentation experiments are now widely used to study the elastic and plastic properties of thin films. Simulation of these experiments has been performed using finite element analysis. Results show the large influence that pile-up or sink-in behavior have on hardness calculations. Results also show that a compliant substrate significantly affects the measured hardness of a stiffer coating. The measured hardness of a compliant coating is less effected by a stiffer substrate.
Moisture-assisted crack growth in polymer/glass interfaces was measured as a function of the applied energy release using a four-point flexure test coupled with an inverted microscope. The specimens consisted of two glass plates bonded together with a thin layer of epoxy adhesive. Roughening the surface of one of the interfaces increased its fracture resistance sufficiently so that crack growth on this interface was inhibited. Thus, crack growth would occur only on the “smooth” interface (one with the least fracture resistance) or in the case where both interfaces were smooth, dual cracking occurred. Finite element analysis was used to explain the observed crack growth results.
The process of conventional hydrostatic extrusion limits the length of the billet that can be extruded to a length somewhat shorter than that of the chamber. Production units are also limited to pressures of about 8,000 Kg/cm2. Thus the reduction that can be affected in one pass of hydrostatic extrusion of mildly tough materials like low carbon steels or copper is limited to no more than 75% R.A., if the extrusion is performed at room temperature. For subsequent passes, each previous extrudate must be cut to suitable length so it will fit again into the chamber.
The Condie process (Austen, U.S. Pat. #3,999,415) provides the means to perform extrusion through several dies, one die at a time, in one loading of the chamber. In the present model, only two dies are loaded into the chamber together with the billet. A short length is first extruded through the first die, while the second die is kept free to move idly with the extrudate. Then extrusion through the first die ceases and the billet is forced to extrude through the second die. As the second die approaches the first die and the intermediate diameter section shortens, the extrusion stops. Thus, one cycle of a finite length is completed. But, the accumulated reduction from billet to extrudate is large, similar to the reduction obtainable by a single die from a chamber of twice as high a pressure.
Electrically switchable volume reflection holograms were written by inhomogeneous illumination of a prepolymer syrup containing a nematic liquid crystal and a multifunctional acrylate monomer. Switchable holograms are diffractive optics structures and the diffraction efficiency can be controlled by the application of an electric field. Reflection gratings with grating spacing varying between 0.16-0.27 µm were made during the phase separation of liquid crystals from the fast curing prepolymer syrup. The reflection efficiency of the holograms were electrically modulated with the applied field of ∼10-15V/µm. Real time study of the grating formation revealed that the maximum efficiency is reached in ∼15 seconds. The shrinkage of the host polymer during grating formation resulted in the blue shift of the reflection notch. The response time of the grating in an electric field is ∼50 µs. Low voltage scanning electron microscope studies showed the presence of discrete nematic droplet domains of sizes 30-60 nm in liquid crystal rich region.