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Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, an enzyme potentially involved in the major depressive episodes (MDE), could be indirectly measured by the L-Citrulline/L-Arginine ratio (L-Cit/L-Arg). The aim of this study was: (1) to compare the NOS activity of patients with a MDE to that of healthy controls (HC); (2) to assess its change after antidepressant treatment.
A total of 460 patients with a current MDE in a context of major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared to 895 HC for NOS activity (L-Cit/L-Arg plasma ratio). L-Arg and L-Cit plasma levels were measured using a MS-based liquid chromatography method. Depressed patients were assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of antidepressant treatment for depression severity and clinical response.
Depressed patients had a lower NOS activity than HC at baseline [0.31 ± 0.09 v. 0.38 ± 0.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.084 to −0.062, p < 0.0001]. Lower NOS activity at baseline predicted a higher response rate [odds ratio (OR) = 29.20; 95% CI 1.58–536.37; p = 0.023]. NOS activity in depressed patients increased significantly up to 0.34 ± 0.08 after antidepressant treatment (Est = 0.0034; 95% CI 0.0002–0.0067; p = 0.03).
Depressed patients have a decreased NOS activity that improves after antidepressant treatment and predicts drug response. NOS activity may be a promising biomarker for MDE in a context of MDD.
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of perioperative myocardial damage detected by serial measurements of troponin I after hip surgery and its association with late cardiovascular outcome.
Troponin I was measured during the first three postoperative days in 88 consecutive patients undergoing hip surgery. Values above the 99th percentile (0.08 ng mL−1) were considered positive. Major cardiac events (cardiac death, myocardial infarction and cardiac failure) were recorded during hospital stay and 1 yr after surgery.
Eleven patients (12.5%) exhibited elevated troponin I levels during hospital stay. Nine of them remained asymptomatic. During follow-up, 45% of them (5/11) suffered from a major cardiac event vs. 4% (3/76) for patients with normal postoperative troponin I levels (P = 0.0006). All-cause mortality rate was 36% (4/11) at 1 yr vs. 7% (5/71, P = 0.0131). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis adjusted for baseline data, independent factors associated with the occurrence of a cardiac event were troponin I elevation (OR=17.4 – CI 95% 3.7–82) and age (OR=1.1 yr−1 – CI 95% 1.01–1.21). Independent factors for all-cause mortality were troponin I elevation (OR=41.4 – CI 95% 5.4–320.4), and age (OR=1.3 yr−1 – CI 95% 1.1–1.4).
Troponin I release is common after hip surgery and is associated with a 10-fold increased incidence of long-term major cardiac events as compared to patients with normal troponin I levels (45% vs. 4%).
A mortality study was carried out among workers employed in the
Arcelor and GTS Industries plants in Dunkerque. It was aimed at
assessing the possible association between iron oxide exposures
and lung cancer risk. The cohort comprised 16,742 males and 959
females. Among males, the observed mortality was lower than
expected for all causes. No significant lung cancer excess was observed
for exposure to iron oxides and no dose-response relationship
with intensity and duration of exposure.
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